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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

met'-al (chashmal; elektron; the King James Version amber; Ezekiel 8:2, the Revised Version margin "amber"): The substance here intended is a matter of great uncertainty. In Egypt bronze was, called chesmen, which may be connected with the Hebrew chashmal; the Greek elektron too has generally been accepted as an alloy of gold or silver or other metals, but this is far from certain. Professor Ridgeway (EB, I, cols. 134-36) has conclusively shown, however, that amber was well known in early times and that there is nothing archaeologically improbable in the reading of the King James Version.

Amber is a substance analogous to the vegetable resins, and is in all probability derived from extinct coniferous trees. The best or yellow variety was obtained by the ancients from the coasts of the Baltic where it is still found more plentifully than elsewhere. A red amber has been found in South Europe and in Phoenicia. From earliest times amber has been prized as an ornament; Homer apparently refers to it twice. Amber bracelets and necklaces are highly prized by the Orientals-especially Jewesses-today, and they are credited with medicinal properties.


E. W. G. Masterman



5471. chalkeus -- a worker in metal
... a worker in metal. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: chalkeus Phonetic
Spelling: (khalk-yooce') Short Definition: a worker in brass or copper ...
// - 6k

696. arguros -- silver
... silver. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: arguros Phonetic Spelling:
(ar'-goo-ros) Short Definition: silver as a metal Definition: silver as a ...
// - 6k

5557. chrusos -- gold
... gold. Perhaps from the base of chraomai (through the idea of the utility of the
metal); gold; by extension, a golden article, as an ornament or coin -- gold. ...
// - 6k

3148. mastix -- a whip, scourge
... Phonetic Spelling: (mas'-tix) Short Definition: a scourge, lash, sufferings Definition:
(a) a scourge, lash, of leathern thongs with pieces of metal sewn up in ...
// - 7k

5553. chrusion -- a piece of gold, gold
... to purchase (acquire).". 696 ("silver") was the most precious metal in the
ancient world.]. Word Origin dim. of chrusos Definition ...
// - 7k

2072. esoptron -- a mirror (ie an object for looking into)
... Neuter Transliteration: esoptron Phonetic Spelling: (es'-op-tron) Short Definition:
a mirror Definition: a mirror, looking-glass (made of highly polished metal ...
// - 7k

5475. chalkos -- copper or bronze
... Perhaps from chalao through the idea of hollowing out as a vessel (this metal being
chiefly used for that purpose); copper (the substance, or some implement or ...
// - 6k

5474. chalkolibanon -- chalcolibanus (fine copper, bronze or brass ...
... Phonetic Spelling: (khal-kol-ib'-an-on) Short Definition: orichalcum, or frankincense
of a yellow color Definition: orichalcum, a fine metal, or frankincense ...
// - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
6826. tsippuy -- (metal) plating
... 6825, 6826. tsippuy. 6827 . (metal) plating. Transliteration: tsippuy Phonetic
Spelling: (tsip-poo'-ee) Short Definition: overlaying. ...
/hebrew/6826.htm - 6k

4541a. massekah -- a libation, molten metal or image
... 4541, 4541a. massekah. 4541b . a libation, molten metal or image.
Transliteration: massekah Short Definition: images. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/4541a.htm - 5k

6341b. pach -- a plate (of metal)
... a plate (of metal). Transliteration: pach Short Definition: sheets. Word Origin
from the same as pach Definition a plate (of metal) NASB Word Usage sheets (2). ...
/hebrew/6341b.htm - 5k

5777. ophereth -- lead (a metal)
... 5776, 5777. ophereth or ophereth. 5778 . lead (a metal). Transliteration: ophereth
or ophereth Phonetic Spelling: (o-feh'-reth) Short Definition: lead. ...
/hebrew/5777.htm - 6k

4300. metil -- a wrought metal rod
... 4299, 4300. metil. 4301 . a wrought metal rod. Transliteration: metil
Phonetic Spelling: (met-eel') Short Definition: bars. Word ...
/hebrew/4300.htm - 6k

4541. maccekah -- a libation, molten metal or image
... 4540, 4541. maccekah. 4541a . a libation, molten metal or image. Transliteration:
maccekah Phonetic Spelling: (mas-say-kaw') Short Definition: covering. ...
/hebrew/4541.htm - 5k

2830. chashmal -- perhaps amber
... 2829, 2830. chashmal. 2831 . perhaps amber. Transliteration: chashmal
Phonetic Spelling: (khash-mal') Short Definition: metal. Word ...
/hebrew/2830.htm - 5k

8210. shaphak -- to pour out, pour
... A primitive root; to spill forth (blood, a libation, liquid metal; or even a solid,
ie To mound up); also (figuratively) to expend (life, soul, complaint, money ...
/hebrew/8210.htm - 6k

4166. mutseqeth -- a pipe, casting
... Or mutsaqah {moo-tsaw-kaw'}; from yatsaq; properly, something poured out, ie A casting
(of metal); by implication, a tube (as cast) -- when it was cast, pipe. ...
/hebrew/4166.htm - 6k

3332. yatsaq -- to pour, cast, flow
... A primitive root; properly, to pour out (transitive or intransitive); by implication,
to melt or cast as metal; by extension, to place firmly, to stiffen or ...
/hebrew/3332.htm - 6k


Subterraneous Places. Mines. Caves.
... You may divide the subterraneous country into three parts: the metal mines,
the caves, and the places of burial. This land was eminently ...
/.../from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 99 subterraneous places mines.htm

But Unbelievers Cry, "How Can the Flesh, which Has Been Putrified ...
... Do you refuse to admit the fact when you see mortal ingenuity search for veins of
metal deeply buried in the ground, and the experienced eye discover gold ...
/.../42 but unbelievers cry how.htm

A Caution to the Presumptuous
... Whenever God sends from the mint of heaven a precious coin of genuine metal, Satan
will imitate the impress, and utter a vile production of no value. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 1 1855/a caution to the presumptuous.htm

Fire and Anvil for Leaders.
... the anvil of experience. The fire must burn out the clay and dirt, and then
the hammer shape up the metal. Leaders must have convictions ...
/.../gordon/quiet talks about jesus/fire and anvil for leaders.htm

But this Material May be Differently Arranged in the Resurrection ...
... But just as if a statue of some soluble metal were either melted by fire, or broken
into dust, or reduced to a shapeless mass, and a sculptor wished to restore ...
/.../augustine/the enchiridion/chapter 89 but this material may.htm

Folly of Idolatry.
... "And yet who can be found so senseless as to be persuaded to worship an
idol, whether it be made of gold or of any other metal? ...
/.../unknown/recognitions of clement /chapter xx folly of idolatry.htm

Folly of Idolatry.
... What then? Melt your useless images, and make useful vessels. Melt the unserviceable
and inactive metal, and make implements fit for the use of men. ...
/.../unknown/recognitions of clement /chapter xv folly of idolatry.htm

Of the Righteous and Unrighteous Passion of Wrath.
... It makes no difference whether gold plates, or lead, or what metal you please, are
placed over our eyelids, the value of the metal makes no difference in our ...
/.../cassian/the works of john cassian /chapter vi of the righteous.htm

Mahometanism; Image-Worship (Ad 612-794)
... These emperors, wishing to do away with the grounds for such reproaches, caused
the figures of stone or metal to be broken, and the sacred pictures to be ...
/.../chapter i mahometanism image-worship ad.htm

Of the Way to Attain Divine Union
... effects would be apt to despise and reject the vessel of pure gold sullied by some
external pollution, and prefer an impure and gross metal that appeared ...
/.../guyon/a short and easy method of prayer/chapter xxiv of the way.htm

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) An elementary substance, as sodium, calcium, or copper, whose oxide or hydroxide has basic rather than acid properties, as contrasted with the nonmetals, or metalloids. No sharp line can be drawn between the metals and nonmetals, and certain elements partake of both acid and basic qualities, as chromium, manganese, bismuth, etc.

2. (n.) Ore from which a metal is derived; -- so called by miners.

3. (n.) A mine from which ores are taken.

4. (n.) The substance of which anything is made; material; hence, constitutional disposition; character; temper.

5. (n.) Courage; spirit; mettle. See Mettle.

6. (n.) The broken stone used in macadamizing roads and ballasting railroads.

7. (n.) The effective power or caliber of guns carried by a vessel of war.

8. (n.) Glass in a state of fusion.

9. (n.) The rails of a railroad.

10. (v. t.) To cover with metal; as, to metal a ship's bottom; to metal a road.

Metal (69 Occurrences)
... 2. (n.) Ore from which a metal is derived; -- so called by miners. ... 10. (vt) To cover
with metal; as, to metal a ship's bottom; to metal a road. Int. ...
/m/metal.htm - 30k

Metal-workers (5 Occurrences)
Metal-workers. Metal-worker, Metal-workers. Mete . Multi-Version
Concordance Metal-workers (5 Occurrences). 2 Chronicles ...
/m/metal-workers.htm - 8k

Metal-worker (3 Occurrences)
Metal-worker. Metalworker, Metal-worker. Metal-workers . Multi-Version
Concordance Metal-worker (3 Occurrences). 2 Timothy ...
/m/metal-worker.htm - 7k

Metal-tester's (1 Occurrence)
Metal-tester's. Metals, Metal-tester's. Metalworker . Multi-Version
Concordance Metal-tester's (1 Occurrence). Malachi ...
/m/metal-tester's.htm - 6k

Pictured (26 Occurrences)
... 33:52 See that all the people of the land are forced out from before you, and put
to destruction all their pictured stones, and all their metal images, and all ...
/p/pictured.htm - 15k

Plating (13 Occurrences)
... 2. (n.) The art or process of covering anything with a plate or plates, or with
metal, particularly of overlaying a base or dull metal with a thin plate of ...
/p/plating.htm - 10k

Plate (34 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) A flat, or nearly flat, piece of metal, the thickness of which is small
in comparison with the other dimensions; a thick sheet of metal; as, a steel ...
/p/plate.htm - 20k

Liquid (15 Occurrences)
... 1 Kings 7:24 And under the edge of it, circling it all round for ten cubits, were
two lines of flower buds, made together with it from liquid metal. (BBE). ...
/l/liquid.htm - 11k

Copper (55 Occurrences)
... 14). Noah Webster's Dictionary. 1. (n.) A common metal of a reddish color,
both ductile and malleable, and very tenacious. It is ...
/c/copper.htm - 27k

Gate (248 Occurrences)
... door or passageway in the wall of a city, of an enclosed field or place, or of a
grand edifice, etc.; also, the movable structure of timber, metal, etc., by ...
/g/gate.htm - 63k

Bible Concordance
Metal (69 Occurrences)

Exodus 25:31 And you are to make a support for lights, of the best gold; its base and its pillar are to be of hammered gold; its cups, its buds, and its flowers are to be made of the same metal.

Exodus 25:36 The buds and the branches are to be made of the same metal; all together one complete work of hammered gold.

Exodus 32:4 And he took the gold from them and, hammering it with an instrument, he made it into the metal image of a young ox: and they said, This is your god, O Israel, who took you out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 32:8 Even now they are turned away from the rule I gave them, and have made themselves a metal ox and given worship to it and offerings, saying, This is your god, O Israel, who took you up out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 34:17 Make for yourselves no gods of metal.

Exodus 37:17 Then he made the support for the lights, all of the best gold; its base and its pillar were of hammered gold; its cups and buds and flowers were all made out of the same metal:

Exodus 37:22 The buds and the branches were made of the same metal, all together one complete work of the best hammered gold.

Leviticus 19:4 Do not go after false gods, and do not make metal images of gods for yourselves: I am the Lord your God.

Numbers 33:52 See that all the people of the land are forced out from before you, and put to destruction all their pictured stones, and all their metal images, and all their high places:

Deuteronomy 9:12 And the Lord said to me, Get up now, and go down quickly from this place; for the people you have taken out of Egypt have given themselves over to evil; they have quickly been turned from the way in which I gave them orders to go; they have made themselves a metal image.

Deuteronomy 9:16 And I saw that you had done evil against the Lord, and had made for yourselves a metal image of a young ox: you had quickly been turned from the way in which the Lord had given you orders to go.

Deuteronomy 27:15 Cursed is the man who makes any image of wood or stone or metal, disgusting to the Lord, the work of man's hands, and puts it up in secret. And let all the people say, So be it.

Judges 17:2 And he said to his mother, The eleven hundred shekels of silver which were taken from you, about which you took an oath and said in my hearing, I have given this silver to the Lord from my hand for myself, to make a pictured image and a metal image: see, I have the silver, for I took it: so now I will give it back to you. And his mother said, May the blessing of the Lord be on my son.

Judges 17:4 So he gave the silver back to his mother. Then his mother took two hundred shekels of silver and gave them to a metal-worker who made a pictured image and a metal image from them: and it was in the house of Micah.

Judges 18:14 Then the five men who had gone to make a search through the country of Laish, said to their brothers, Have you knowledge that in these houses there is an ephod and family gods and a pictured image and a metal image? So now you see what to do.

Judges 18:17 Then the five men who had gone to make a search through the land, went in and took the pictured image and the ephod and the family gods and the metal image; and the priest was by the doorway with the six hundred armed men.

Judges 18:18 And when they went into Micah's house and took out the pictured image and the ephod and the family gods and the metal image, the priest said to them, What are you doing?

1 Samuel 17:5 And he had a head-dress of brass on his head, and he was dressed in a coat of metal, the weight of which was five thousand shekels of brass.

1 Samuel 17:38 Then Saul gave David his clothing of war, and put a head-dress of brass on his head and had him clothed with a coat of metal.

1 Samuel 17:39 And David took Saul's sword and put the band round him over the metal coat, and was unable to go forward; for he was not used to them. Then David said to Saul, It is not possible for me to go out with these, for I am not used to them. So David took them off.

1 Samuel 17:54 And David took the head of the Philistine to Jerusalem, but the metal war-dress and the arms he put in his tent.

1 Kings 7:23 And he made a great metal water-vessel ten cubits across from edge to edge, five cubits high and thirty cubits round.

1 Kings 7:24 And under the edge of it, circling it all round for ten cubits, were two lines of flower buds, made together with it from liquid metal.

1 Kings 7:30 Every base had four wheels of brass, turning on brass rods, and their four angles had angle-plates under them; the angle-plates under the base were of metal, and there were ornaments at the side of every one.

1 Kings 7:33 The wheels were made like carriage-wheels, the rods on which they were fixed, the parts forming their edges, their rods and the middle points of them, were all formed out of liquid metal.

1 Kings 7:39 He set the bases, five on the right side of the house, and five on the left side of the house: and he set the sea on the right side of the house eastward, toward the south.
(See NAS)

1 Kings 7:46 He made them of liquid metal in the lowland of Jordan, at the way across the river, at Adama, between Succoth and Zarethan.

1 Kings 10:25 And everyone took with him an offering, vessels of silver and vessels of gold, and robes, and coats of metal, and spices, and horses, and beasts of transport, regularly year by year.

1 Kings 14:9 But you have done evil more than any before you, and have made for yourself other gods, and images of metal, moving me to wrath, and turning your back on me.

2 Kings 17:16 And turning their backs on all the orders which the Lord had given them, they made for themselves images of metal, and the image of Asherah, worshipping all the stars of heaven and becoming servants to Baal.

2 Chronicles 4:2 And he made the great water-vessel of metal, round in form, measuring ten cubits across from edge to edge; it was five cubits high and thirty cubits round.

2 Chronicles 4:3 And under it was a design of flowers all round it, ten to a cubit, circling the water-vessel in two lines; they were made from liquid metal at the same time as the water-vessel.

2 Chronicles 4:17 The king made them of liquid metal in the lowland of Jordan, in the soft earth between Succoth and Zeredah.

2 Chronicles 9:24 And everyone took with him an offering, vessels of silver and vessels of gold, and robes, and coats of metal, and spices, and horses and beasts for transport, regularly year by year.

2 Chronicles 26:14 And Uzziah had all these forces armed with body-covers and spears and head-covers and coats of metal and bows and stones for sending from leather bands.

2 Chronicles 28:2 But he went in the ways of the kings of Israel and made images of metal for the Baals.

2 Chronicles 34:3 In the eighth year of his rule, while he was still young, his heart was first turned to the God of his father David; and in the twelfth year he undertook the clearing away of all the high places and the pillars and the images of wood and metal from Judah and Jerusalem.

2 Chronicles 34:4 He had the altars of the Baals broken down, while he himself was present; and the sun-images which were placed on high over them he had cut down; and the pillars of wood and the metal images he had broken up and crushed to dust, dropping the dust over the resting-places of the dead who had made offerings to them.

Nehemiah 4:16 And from that time, half of my servants were doing their part of the work, and half kept the spears and body-covers and the bows and the metal war-dresses; and the chiefs were at the back of the men of Judah.

Nehemiah 9:18 Even when they had made for themselves an ox of metal, and said, This is your God who took you up out of Egypt, and had done so much to make you angry;

Job 37:18 Can you, with him, spread out the sky, which is strong as a cast metal mirror?

Job 38:38 When the earth becomes hard as metal, and is joined together in masses?

Job 40:24 Will anyone take him when he is on the watch, or put metal teeth through his nose?

Psalms 106:19 They made a calf in Horeb, and worshiped a molten image.
(See NIV)

Psalms 119:119 All the sinners of the earth are like waste metal in your eyes; and for this cause I give my love to your unchanging word.

Isaiah 1:22 Your silver is no longer true metal, your wine is mixed with water.

Isaiah 1:25 And my hand will again be on you, washing away what is unclean as with soap, and taking away all your false metal;

Isaiah 41:7 So the metal-worker put heart into the gold-worker, and he who was hammering the metal smooth said kind words to the iron-worker, saying of the plate, It is ready: and he put it together with nails, so that there might be no slipping.

Isaiah 41:29 Truly they are all nothing, their works are nothing and of no value: their metal images are of no more use than wind.

Isaiah 42:17 They will be turned back and be greatly shamed who put their hope in pictured images, who say to metal images, You are our gods.

Isaiah 44:10 Whoever makes a god, makes nothing but a metal image in which there is no profit.

Isaiah 44:12 The iron-worker is heating the metal in the fire, giving it form with his hammers, and working on it with his strong arm: then for need of food his strength gives way, and for need of water he becomes feeble.

Isaiah 48:5 For this reason I made it clear to you in the past, before it came I gave you word of it: for fear that you might say, My god did these things, and my pictured and metal images made them come about.

Jeremiah 6:29 The blower is blowing strongly, the lead is burned away in the fire: they go on heating the metal to no purpose, for the evil-doers are not taken away.

Jeremiah 10:14 Then every man becomes like a beast without knowledge; every gold-worker is put to shame by the image he has made: for his metal image is deceit, and there is no breath in them.

Jeremiah 51:3 Against her the bow of the archer is bent, and he puts on his coat of metal: have no mercy on her young men, give all her army up to the curse.

Jeremiah 51:17 Then every man becomes like a beast without knowledge; every gold-worker is put to shame by the image he has made: for his metal image is deceit, and there is no breath in them.

Ezekiel 1:4 I looked, and behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with flashing lightning, and a brightness around it, and out of its midst as it were glowing metal, out of the midst of the fire.

Ezekiel 1:27 I saw as it were glowing metal, as the appearance of fire within it all around, from the appearance of his waist and upward; and from the appearance of his waist and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him.

Ezekiel 8:2 Then I saw, and behold, a likeness as the appearance of fire; from the appearance of his waist and downward, fire; and from his waist and upward, as the appearance of brightness, as it were glowing metal.

Ezekiel 22:18 Son of man, the children of Israel have become like the poorest sort of waste metal to me: they are all silver and brass and tin and iron and lead mixed with waste.

Ezekiel 22:19 For this cause the Lord has said: Because you have all become waste metal, see, I will get you together inside Jerusalem.

Ezekiel 23:24 And they will come against you from the north on horseback, with war-carriages and a great band of peoples; they will put themselves in order against you with breastplate and body-cover and metal head-dress round about you: and I will make them your judges, and they will give their decision against you as seems right to them.

Ezekiel 38:5 Persia, Cush, and Put with them; all of them with body-cover and metal head-dress:

Daniel 11:8 And their gods and their metal images and their fair vessels of silver and gold he will take away into the south; and for some years he will keep away from the king of the north.

Hosea 13:2 And now their sins are increased; they have made themselves a metal image, false gods from their silver, after their designs, all of them the work of the metal-workers; they say of them, Let them give offerings, let men give kisses to the oxen.

Nahum 1:14 The Lord has given an order about you, that no more of your name are to be planted: from the house of your gods I will have the pictured and metal images cut off; I will make your last resting-place a place of shame; for you are completely evil.

Nahum 2:3 The shield of his mighty men is made red. The valiant men are in scarlet. The chariots flash with steel in the day of his preparation, and the pine spears are brandished.
(See NIV)

Habakkuk 2:18 What profit is the pictured image to its maker? and as for the metal image, the false teacher, why does its maker put his faith in it, making false gods without a voice?



Metal Working

Related Terms

Metal-workers (5 Occurrences)

Metal-worker (3 Occurrences)

Metal-tester's (1 Occurrence)

Pictured (26 Occurrences)

Plating (13 Occurrences)

Plate (34 Occurrences)

Liquid (15 Occurrences)

Copper (55 Occurrences)

Gate (248 Occurrences)

Silver (329 Occurrences)

Gold-worker (6 Occurrences)

Refining (8 Occurrences)

Refiner (10 Occurrences)

Lead (192 Occurrences)

Metals (1 Occurrence)

Pan (26 Occurrences)

Head-dress (22 Occurrences)

Ore (5 Occurrences)

Gleaming (9 Occurrences)

Glowing (14 Occurrences)

Wedge (3 Occurrences)

Iron-worker (4 Occurrences)

Flashing (12 Occurrences)

Trunk (3 Occurrences)

Tin (6 Occurrences)

Rust (7 Occurrences)

Runner (5 Occurrences)

Die (401 Occurrences)

Casting (54 Occurrences)

Cast (640 Occurrences)

Assay (3 Occurrences)

Stamp (25 Occurrences)

Sculpture (1 Occurrence)

Brightness (36 Occurrences)

Hammering (7 Occurrences)

Hammered (22 Occurrences)

Idol (56 Occurrences)

Kisses (12 Occurrences)

Crafts (2 Occurrences)


Nose-jewels (1 Occurrence)

Welding (1 Occurrence)

Wash (105 Occurrences)

Frontal (1 Occurrence)

Flask (15 Occurrences)

Token (24 Occurrences)

Tablet (7 Occurrences)

Tarnish (1 Occurrence)

Topple (3 Occurrences)

Transport (18 Occurrences)

Tinkle (1 Occurrence)

Rail (8 Occurrences)

Revive (31 Occurrences)

Reed (41 Occurrences)

Electrum (3 Occurrences)

Engrave (8 Occurrences)

Engraver (3 Occurrences)

Dipping (4 Occurrences)

Downward (10 Occurrences)

Dross (7 Occurrences)


Mat (17 Occurrences)

Mail (11 Occurrences)

Mill (9 Occurrences)

Mine (2991 Occurrences)

Metalworker (1 Occurrence)

Money (284 Occurrences)

Pipe (13 Occurrences)

Pattern (28 Occurrences)

Pin (10 Occurrences)

Blower (1 Occurrence)

Bronze (146 Occurrences)

Brass (168 Occurrences)

Body-covers (25 Occurrences)

Base (127 Occurrences)


Body-cover (11 Occurrences)

Chisel (5 Occurrences)

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