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International Standard Bible EncyclopediaIRON (1)
i'-urn (barzel; sideros): It is generally believed that the art of separating iron from its ores and making it into useful forms was not known much earlier than 1000 B.C., and that the making of brass (bronze) antedates it by many centuries, in spite of the frequent Biblical references where brass and iron occur together. This conjecture is based upon the fact that no specimen of worked iron has been found whose antiquity can be vouched for. The want of such instruments, however, can be attributed to the ease with which iron corrodes. Evidence that iron was used is found, for example, in the hieroglyphics of the tomb of Rameses III, where the blades of some of the weapons are painted blue while others are painted red, a distinction believed to be due to the fact that some were made of iron or steel and some of brass. No satisfactory proof has yet been presented that the marvelous sculpturing on the hard Egyptian granite was done with tempered bronze. It seems more likely that steel tools were used. After the discovery of iron, it was evidently a long time in replacing bronze. This was probably due to the difficulties in smelting it. An old mountaineer once described to the writer the process of iron smelting as it was carried on in Mt. Lebanon in past centuries. As a boy he had watched his father, who was a smelter, operate one of the last furnaces to be fired. For each firing, many cords of wood, especially green oak branches, were used, and several days of strenuous pumping at the eight bellows was necessary to supply the air blast. As a result a small lump of wrought iron was removed from the bottom of the furnace after cooling. The iron thus won was carried to Damascus where it was made into steel by workers who kept their methods secret. This process, which has not been worked now for years, was undoubtedly the same as was used by the ancients. It is not at all unlikely that the Lebanon iron, transformed into steel, was what was referred to as "northern iron" in Jeremiah 15:12 (the King James Version). In many districts the piles of slag from the ancient furnaces are still evident.
i'-ron (yir'on): One of the fenced cities in the territory of Naphtali, named with Migdal-el and En-hazor (Joshua 19:38). It is represented by the modern Yarun, a village with the ruins of a synagogue, at one time used as a monastery, fully 6 miles West of Qedes.
Greek4604. siderous -- of iron
... siderous. 4605 . of iron. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: siderous
Phonetic Spelling: (sid'-ay-ros) Short Definition: iron Definition: iron. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4604.htm - 6k
4603. sideros -- iron
2743. kauteriazo -- sear with a hot iron.
5480. charagma -- a stamp, impress
2741b. kausteriazo -- to mark by branding
Strong's Hebrew1270. barzel -- iron
... 1269, 1270. barzel. 1271 . iron. Transliteration: barzel Phonetic Spelling:
(bar-zel') Short Definition: iron. Word Origin from ...
/hebrew/1270.htm - 6k
6523. parzel -- iron
1271. Barzillay -- "man of iron," three Israelites
6393. peladah -- probably iron, steel
7905. sukkah -- a barb, spear
4300. metil -- a wrought metal rod
7420. romach -- a spear, lance
6729. tsinoq -- pillory
Yokes of Wood and Iron
The Northern Iron and the Steel
Shoes of Iron, and Strength Sufficient: a New Year's Promise
John and Daniel have Predicted the Dissolution and Desolation of ...
A King's Strange Dream
What Kind of Affinity (Convenance) it is which Excites Love.
A Short Home Mission Sermon.
Subterraneous Places. Mines. Caves.
On Daniel. Ii. The Interpretation by Hippolytus, (Bishop) of Rome ...
Showing How the Inward Man Should Exercise Himself, that He May be ...
Smith's Bible DictionaryIron
(pious), one of the cities of Naphtali, (Joshua 19:38) hitherto totally unknown.
ATS Bible DictionaryIron
Was early known and wrought, Genesis 4:22. Moses often alludes to it. He compares the bondage in Egypt to a furnace for smelting iron, and speaks of the iron ore of Canaan, De 3:11 4:20 8:9. Many different articles and tools were anciently made of it. Immense quantities were provided for the building of the temple, 1 Chronicles 29:2,7. "Iron" is used to illustrated slavery, strength, obstinacy, fortitude, affliction, etc., De 28:48 Job 40:18 Isaiah 48:4 Jeremiah 1:18 Ezekiel 22:18,20 Daniel 2:33. "Iron sharpeneth iron," that is, the presence of a friend gives us more confidence and assurance. God threatens his ungrateful and perfidious people that he will make the heaven brass and the earth iron; that is, make the earth barren, and the heaven to produce no rain. Chariots of iron are chariots armed with iron spikes and scythes. See CHARIOTS.
Easton's Bible DictionaryTubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Genesis 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chronicles 22:3: 29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the Market of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deuteronomy 27:5; 19:5; Joshua 17:16, 18; 1 Samuel 17:7; 2 Samuel 12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chronicles 22:3; Isaiah 10:34).
Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deuteronomy 28:48) denotes hard service; a rod of iron (Psalm 2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jeremiah 1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deuteronomy 4:20), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of iron (Psalm 107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isaiah 60:17), prosperity.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) The most common and most useful metallic element, being of almost universal occurrence, usually in the form of an oxide (as hematite, magnetite, etc.), or a hydrous oxide (as limonite, turgite, etc.). It is reduced on an enormous scale in three principal forms; viz., cast iron, steel, and wrought iron. Iron usually appears dark brown, from oxidation or impurity, but when pure, or on a fresh surface, is a gray or white metal. It is easily oxidized (rusted) by moisture, and is attacked by many corrosive agents. Symbol Fe (Latin Ferrum). Atomic weight 55.9. Specific gravity, pure iron, 7.86; cast iron, 7.1. In magnetic properties, it is superior to all other substances.
2. (n.) An instrument or utensil made of iron; -- chiefly in composition; as, a flatiron, a smoothing iron, etc.
3. (n.) Fetters; chains; handcuffs; manacles.
4. (n.) Strength; power; firmness; inflexibility; as, to rule with a rod of iron.
5. (n.) Of, or made of iron; consisting of iron; as, an iron bar, dust.
6. (n.) Resembling iron in color; as, iron blackness.
7. (n.) Like iron in hardness, strength, impenetrability, power of endurance, insensibility, etc.;
8. (n.) Rude; hard; harsh; severe.
9. (n.) Firm; robust; enduring; as, an iron constitution.
10. (n.) Inflexible; unrelenting; as, an iron will.
11. (n.) Not to be broken; holding or binding fast; tenacious.
12. (v. t.) To smooth with an instrument of iron; especially, to smooth, as cloth, with a heated flatiron; -- sometimes used with out.
13. (v. t.) To shackle with irons; to fetter or handcuff.
ThesaurusIron (104 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Genesis
4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. ...
/i/iron.htm - 50k
Iron-worker (4 Occurrences)
Iron-smith (1 Occurrence)
Iron-smelting (2 Occurrences)
Steel (7 Occurrences)
Tin (6 Occurrences)
Forge (2 Occurrences)
Tool (13 Occurrences)
Sawest (20 Occurrences)
Shoe (13 Occurrences)
Bible ConcordanceIron (104 Occurrences)
Mark 5:4 Because he had frequently been prisoned in chains and iron bands, and the chains had been parted and the bands broken by him: and no man was strong enough to make him quiet.
Acts 12:10 When they were past the first and the second guard, they came to the iron gate that leads into the city, which opened to them by itself. They went out, and went down one street, and immediately the angel departed from him.
Romans 16:18 For those who are such don't serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent. things of iron, and wood for the things of wood; onyx stones, and stones
1 Timothy 4:2 through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron;
James 3:3 Now if we put bits of iron into horses' mouths so that they may be guided by us, we have complete control of their bodies.
Revelation 2:27 He will rule them with a rod of iron, shattering them like clay pots; as I also have received of my Father:
Revelation 9:9 They had breastplates, like breastplates of iron. The sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots, or of many horses rushing to war.
Revelation 12:5 She gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron. Her child was caught up to God, and to his throne.
Revelation 18:12 merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble;
Revelation 19:15 Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod. He treads the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty.
Genesis 4:22 Zillah also gave birth to Tubal Cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron. Tubal Cain's sister was Naamah.
Leviticus 26:19 I will break the pride of your power, and I will make your sky like iron, and your soil like brass;
Numbers 31:22 however the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead,
Numbers 35:16 "'But if he struck him with an instrument of iron, so that he died, he is a murderer: the murderer shall surely be put to death.
Deuteronomy 3:11 (For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of the Rephaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; isn't it in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was its length, and four cubits its breadth, after the cubit of a man.)
Deuteronomy 4:20 But Yahweh has taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be to him a people of inheritance, as at this day.
Deuteronomy 8:9 a land in which you shall eat bread without scarceness, you shall not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you may dig copper.
Deuteronomy 19:5 as when he goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the iron slippeth from the handle, and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die; such an one shall flee unto one of these cities, and live;
Deuteronomy 27:5 There you shall build an altar to Yahweh your God, an altar of stones: you shall lift up no iron tool on them.
Deuteronomy 28:23 Your sky that is over your head shall be brass, and the earth that is under you shall be iron.
Deuteronomy 28:48 therefore you shall serve your enemies whom Yahweh shall send against you, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things: and he shall put a yoke of iron on your neck, until he has destroyed you.
Deuteronomy 33:25 Your bars shall be iron and brass. As your days, so your strength will be.
Joshua 6:19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are holy to Yahweh. They shall come into Yahweh's treasury."
Joshua 6:24 They burnt the city with fire, and all that was in it. Only they put the silver, the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron into the treasury of Yahweh's house.
Joshua 8:31 as Moses the servant of Yahweh commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of uncut stones, on which no man had lifted up any iron. They offered burnt offerings on it to Yahweh, and sacrificed peace offerings.
Joshua 17:16 The children of Joseph said, "The hill country is not enough for us. All the Canaanites who dwell in the land of the valley have chariots of iron, both those who are in Beth Shean and its towns, and those who are in the valley of Jezreel."
Joshua 17:18 but the hill country shall be yours. Although it is a forest, you shall cut it down, and it's farthest extent shall be yours; for you shall drive out the Canaanites, though they have chariots of iron, and though they are strong."
Joshua 19:38 Iron, Migdal El, Horem, Beth Anath, and Beth Shemesh; nineteen cities with their villages.
Joshua 22:8 and spoke to them, saying, "Return with much wealth to your tents, with very much livestock, with silver, with gold, with brass, with iron, and with very much clothing. Divide the spoil of your enemies with your brothers."
Judges 1:19 Yahweh was with Judah; and drove out the inhabitants of the hill country; for he could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron.
Judges 4:3 The children of Israel cried to Yahweh: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.
Judges 4:13 Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the people who were with him, from Harosheth of the Gentiles, to the river Kishon.
1 Samuel 13:21 For they had instruments for putting an edge on their ploughs and blades and forks and axes, and for putting iron points on their ox-driving rods.
1 Samuel 17:7 The staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and his shield bearer went before him.
2 Samuel 12:31 He brought forth the people who were therein, and put them under saws, and under iron picks, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brick kiln: and he did so to all the cities of the children of Ammon. David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
2 Samuel 23:7 But the man who touches them must be armed with iron and the staff of a spear. They shall be utterly burned with fire in their place."
1 Kings 6:7 The house, when it was in building, was built of stone made ready at the quarry; and there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building.
1 Kings 8:51 (for they are your people, and your inheritance, which you brought forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron);
1 Kings 18:33 He put the wood in order, and cut the bull in pieces, and laid it on the wood. He said, "Fill four jars with water, and pour it on the burnt offering, and on the wood." brass, the iron for the
1 Kings 22:11 Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made him horns of iron, and said, "Thus says Yahweh,'With these you shall push the Syrians, until they are consumed.'"
2 Kings 6:5 And it came to pass as one was felling a beam, that the iron fell into the water; and he cried and said, Alas, master, and it was borrowed!
2 Kings 6:6 The man of God asked, "Where did it fall?" He showed him the place. He cut down a stick, threw it in there, and made the iron float.
2 Kings 25:7 And they put the sons of Zedekiah to death before his eyes, and then they put out his eyes, and chaining him with iron bands, took him to Babylon.
1 Chronicles 20:3 He brought forth the people who were therein, and cut them with saws, and with iron picks, and with axes. David did so to all the cities of the children of Ammon. David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
1 Chronicles 22:3 David prepared iron in abundance for the nails for the doors of the gates, and for the couplings; and brass in abundance without weight;
1 Chronicles 22:14 Now, behold, in my affliction I have prepared for the house of Yahweh one hundred thousand talents of gold, and one million talents of silver, and of brass and iron without weight; for it is in abundance: timber also and stone have I prepared; and you may add to them.
1 Chronicles 22:16 of the gold, the silver, and the brass, and the iron, there is no number. Arise and be doing, and Yahweh be with you.
1 Chronicles 29:2 Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for things to be made of gold, and the silver for things of silver, and the brass for things of brass, the iron for things of iron, and wood for things of wood; onyx stones, and stones to be set, glistering stones, and of divers colors, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance.
1 Chronicles 29:7 and they gave for the service of the house of God of gold five thousand talents and ten thousand darics, and of silver ten thousand talents, and of brass eighteen thousand talents, and of iron a hundred thousand talents.
2 Chronicles 2:7 Now therefore send me a man skillful to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in iron, and in purple, and crimson, and blue, and who knows how to engrave all manner of engravings, to be with the skillful men who are with me in Judah and in Jerusalem, whom David my father did provide.
2 Chronicles 2:14 the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan; and his father was a man of Tyre, skillful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson, also to engrave any manner of engraving, and to devise any device; that there may be a place appointed to him with your skillful men, and with the skillful men of my lord David your father.
2 Chronicles 18:10 Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made him horns of iron, and said, Thus says Yahweh, With these you shall push the Syrians, until they be consumed.
2 Chronicles 24:12 The king and Jehoiada gave it to such as did the work of the service of the house of Yahweh; and they hired masons and carpenters to restore the house of Yahweh, and also such as worked iron and brass to repair the house of Yahweh.
Job 19:24 That with an iron pen and lead they were engraved in the rock forever!
Job 20:24 He shall flee from the iron weapon. The bronze arrow shall strike him through.
Job 28:2 Iron is taken out of the earth, and copper is smelted out of the ore.
Job 40:18 His bones are like tubes of brass. His limbs are like bars of iron.
Job 41:13 Who has ever taken off his outer skin? who may come inside his inner coat of iron?
Job 41:26 The sword may come near him but is not able to go through him; the spear, or the arrow, or the sharp-pointed iron.
Job 41:27 He counts iron as straw; and brass as rotten wood.
Psalms 2:9 You shall break them with a rod of iron. You shall dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel."
Psalms 74:6 Your doors are broken down with hammers and iron blades.
Psalms 105:18 They bruised his feet with shackles. His neck was locked in irons,
Psalms 107:10 Some sat in darkness and in the shadow of death, being bound in affliction and iron,
Psalms 107:16 For he has broken the gates of brass, and cut through bars of iron.
Psalms 147:13 He has made strong the iron bands of your doors; he has sent blessings on your children inside your walls.
Psalms 149:8 To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron;
Proverbs 27:17 Iron sharpens iron; so a man sharpens his friend's countenance.
Ecclesiastes 10:10 If the iron be blunt, and he do not whet the edge, then must he put to more strength: but wisdom is profitable to direct.
Isaiah 10:34 He will cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon will fall by the Mighty One.
Isaiah 44:12 The iron-worker is heating the metal in the fire, giving it form with his hammers, and working on it with his strong arm: then for need of food his strength gives way, and for need of water he becomes feeble.
Isaiah 45:2 "I will go before you, and make the rough places smooth. I will break the doors of brass in pieces, and cut apart the bars of iron.
Isaiah 48:4 Because I knew that you are obstinate, and your neck is an iron sinew, and your brow brass;
Isaiah 60:17 For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron. I will also make your officers peace, and righteousness your ruler.
Jeremiah 1:18 For, behold, I have made you this day a fortified city, and an iron pillar, and bronze walls, against the whole land, against the kings of Judah, against its princes, against its priests, and against the people of the land.
Jeremiah 6:28 They are all grievous rebels, going about with slanders; they are brass and iron: they all of them deal corruptly.
Jeremiah 11:4 which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the iron furnace, saying, Obey my voice, and do them, according to all which I command you: so you shall be my people, and I will be your God;
Jeremiah 15:12 Can one break iron, even iron from the north, and brass?
Jeremiah 17:1 The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond: it is engraved on the tablet of their heart, and on the horns of your altars;
Jeremiah 28:13 Go, and tell Hananiah, saying, Thus says Yahweh: You have broken the bars of wood; but you have made in their place bars of iron.
Jeremiah 28:14 For thus says Yahweh of Armies, the God of Israel: I have put a yoke of iron on the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him: and I have given him the animals of the field also.
Jeremiah 29:26 Yahweh has made you priest in the place of Jehoiada the priest, that there may be officers in the house of Yahweh, for every man who is mad, and makes himself a prophet, that you should put him in the stocks and in shackles.
Jeremiah 52:11 And he put out Zedekiah's eyes; and the king of Babylon, chaining him in iron bands, took him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death.
Ezekiel 4:3 Take for yourself an iron pan, and set it for a wall of iron between you and the city: and set your face toward it, and it shall be besieged, and you shall lay siege against it. This shall be a sign to the house of Israel.
Ezekiel 22:18 Son of man, the house of Israel is become dross to me: all of them are brass and tin and iron and lead, in the midst of the furnace; they are the dross of silver.
Ezekiel 22:20 As they gather silver and brass and iron and lead and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire on it, to melt it; so will I gather you in my anger and in my wrath, and I will lay you there, and melt you.
Ezekiel 27:12 Tarshish was your merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for your wares.
Ezekiel 27:19 Vedan and Javan traded with yarn for your wares: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were among your merchandise.
Daniel 2:33 its legs of iron, its feet part of iron, and part of clay.
Daniel 2:34 You saw until a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image on its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces.
Daniel 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them: and the stone that struck the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
Daniel 2:40 The fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron, because iron breaks in pieces and subdues all things; and as iron that crushes all these, shall it break in pieces and crush.
Daniel 2:41 Whereas you saw the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, it shall be a divided kingdom; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, because you saw the iron mixed with miry clay.
Daniel 2:42 As the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
Daniel 2:43 Whereas you saw the iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men; but they shall not cling to one another, even as iron does not mingle with clay.
Daniel 2:45 Because you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God has made known to the king what shall happen hereafter: and the dream is certain, and its interpretation sure.
Daniel 4:15 Nevertheless leave the stump of its roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of the sky: and let his portion be with the animals in the grass of the earth:
Daniel 4:23 Whereas the king saw a watcher and a holy one coming down from the sky, and saying, Cut down the tree, and destroy it; nevertheless leave the stump of its roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field, and let it be wet with the dew of the sky: and let his portion be with the animals of the field, until seven times pass over him;
Daniel 5:4 They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.
Daniel 5:23 but have lifted up yourself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before you, and you and your lords, your wives and your concubines, have drunk wine from them; and you have praised the gods of silver and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which don't see, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand your breath is, and whose are all your ways, you have not glorified.
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