International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
i-mor'-tal, im-or-tal'-i-ti (athanasia, 1 Corinthians 15:53 1 Timothy 6:16, aphtharsia, literally, "incorruption," Romans 2:7 1 Corinthians 15; 2 Timothy 1:10, aphthartos, literally, "incorruptible," Romans 1:23 1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Timothy 1:17):
1. Preliminary-Need of Definition and Distinction
2. Biblical Conception
I. THE NATURAL BELIEF
1. Its Origin
2. Philosophical Arguments
(1) The Soul Spiritual
Soul not Inherently Indestructible
(2) Capacities of Human Nature
(3) The Moral Argument
II. THE BIBLICAL DOCTRINE-THE OLD TESTAMENT
1. Starting-Point-Man's Relation to God
2. Sin and Death
3. Grace and Redemption-The True Immortality
Deliverance from Sheol
4. Later Jewish Thought
III. THE CHRISTIAN HOPE
1. Immortality through Christ
(1) Survival of the Soul
(2) Union with Christ in Unseen World
(3) The Resurrection
(4) The Wicked Also Raised
(5) Eternal Life
1. Preliminary-Need of Definition and Distinction:
In hardly any subject is it more necessary to be careful in the definition of terms and clear distinction of ideas, especially where the Biblical doctrine is concerned, than in this of "immortality." By "immortality" is frequently meant simply the survival of the soul, or spiritual part of man, after bodily death. It is the assertion of the fact that death does not end all. The soul survives. This is commonly what is meant when we speak of "a future life," "a future state," "a hereafter." Not, however, to dwell on the fact that many peoples have no clear conception of an immaterial "soul" in the modern sense (the Egyptians, e.g. distinguished several parts, the Ka, the Ba, etc., which survived death; often the surviving self is simply a ghostly resemblance of the earthly self, nourished with food, offerings, etc.), there is the more serious consideration that the state into which the surviving part is supposed to enter at death is anything but a state which can be described as "life," or worthy to be dignified with the name "immortality." It is state peculiar to "death" (see DEATH); in most cases, shadowy, inert, feeble, dependent, joyless; a state to be dreaded and shrunk from, not one to be hoped for. If, on the other hand, as in the hope of immortality among the nobler heathen, it is conceived of, as for some, a state of happiness-the clog of the body being shaken off-this yields the idea, which has passed into so much of our modern thinking, of an "immortality of the soul," of an imperishableness of the spiritual part, sometimes supposed to extend backward as well as forward; an inherent indestructibility.
2. Biblical Conception:
It will be seen as we advance, that the Biblical view is different from all of these. The soul, indeed, survives the body; but this disembodied state is never viewed as one of complete "life." For the Bible "immortality" is not merely the survival of the soul, the passing into "Sheol" or "Hades." This is not, in itself considered, "life" or happiness. The "immortality" the Bible contemplates is an immortality of the whole person-body and soul together. It implies, therefore, deliverance from the state of death. It is not a condition simply of future existence, however prolonged, but a state of blessedness, due to redemption and the possession of the "eternal life" in the soul; it includes resurrection and perfected life in both soul and body. The subject must now be considered more particularly in its different aspects.
I. The Natural Belief.
1. Its Origin:
In some sort the belief in the survival of the spirit or self at death is a practically universal phenomenon. To what is it traceable? A favorite hypothesis with anthropologists is that it has its origin in dreams or visions suggesting the continued existence of the dead (compare H. Spencer, Eccles. Instit., chapters i, xiv). Before, however, a dream can suggest the survival of the soul, there must be the idea of the soul, and of this there seems a simpler explanation in the consciousness which even the savage possesses of something within him that thinks, feels and wills, in distinction from his bodily organs. At death this thinking, feeling something disappears, while the body remains. What more natural than to suppose that it persists in some other state apart from the body? (Compare Max Muller, Anthrop. Religion, 281.) Dreams, etc., may help this conviction, but need not create it. It is only as we assume such a deeper root for the belief that we can account for its universality and persistence. Even this, however, while an instinctive presumption, can hardly be called a proof of survival after death, and it does not yield an idea of "immortality" in any worthy sense. It is at most, as already said, a ghostly reduplication of the earthly life that is thus far reached.
2. Philosophical Arguments:
(1) The Soul Spiritual.
The more philosophical arguments that are adduced for the soul's immortality. (or survival) are not all of equal weight. The argument based on the metaphysical essence of the soul (see Plato's Phaedo) is not in these days felt to be satisfying. On the other hand, it can be maintained against the materialist on irrefragable grounds that the soul, or thinking spirit, in man is immaterial in Nature, and, where this is granted, there is, or can be, no proof that death, or physical dissolution, destroys this conscious spirit. The presumption is powerfully the other way. Cicero of old argued that death need not even be the suspension of its powers (compare Tusc. Disp. i.20); Butler reasons the matter from analogy (Anal., I, chapter i); modern scientists like J.S. Mill (Three Essays, 201) and Professor Huxley (Life and Letters, I, 217; compare William James, Ingersoll Lecture) concede that immortality cannot be disproved. The denial one hears from various sides more frequently than formerly is therefore not warranted. Still possibility is not certainty, and there is nothing as yet to show that even if the soul survives death, its new state of existence has in it anything desirable.
Soul not Inherently Indestructible
It was hinted that one use which the Greeks made of the metaphysical argument was to prove the indestructibility of the soul-its immortality in the sense of having no beginning and no end. This is not the Christian doctrine. The soul has no such inherent indestructibility. It is dependent on God, as everything else is, for its continued existence. Did He withdraw His sustaining power, it would cease to exist. That it does continue to exist is not doubted, but this must be argued on other grounds.
(2) Capacities of Human Nature.
A much more apprehensible argument for immortality-more strictly, of a future state of existence-is drawn from the rich capacities and possibilities of human nature, for which the earthly life affords so brief and inadequate a sphere of exercise. It is the characteristic of spirit that it has in it an element of infinitude, and aspires to the infinite. The best the world can give can never satisfy it. It has in it the possibility of endless progress, and ever higher satisfaction. It was this consideration which led Kant, with all his theoretical skepticism, to give immortality a place among his "doctrinal beliefs" (see his Critique of Pure Reason, Bohn's translation, 590-91), and moved J.S. Mill to speak of it as the only hope which gave adequate scope to the human faculties and feelings, "the loftier aspirations being no longer kept down by a sense of the insignificance of human life by the disastrous feeling of `not worth while' " (Three Essays, 249). Yet when these arguments are calmly weighed, they amount to no more than a proof that man is constituted for immortality; they do not afford a guarantee that this destiny might not be forfeited, or if they yield such a guarantee for the good, they hardly do so for the wicked. The belief, in their case, must depend on other considerations.
(3) The Moral Argument.
It is, as Kant also felt, when we enter the moral sphere that immortality, or the continued existence of the soul, becomes a practical certainty to the earnest mind. With moral personality is bound up the idea of moral law and moral responsibility; this, in turn, necessitates the thought of the world as a moral system, and of God as moral Ruler. The world, as we know it, is certainly a scene of moral administration-of probation, of discipline, of reward and penalty-but as obviously a scene of incomplete moral administration. The tangled condition of things in this life can satisfy no one's sense of justice. Goodness is left to suffer; wickedness outwardly triumphs. The evil-doer's own conscience proclaims him answerable, and points to future judgment. There is need for a final rectification of what is wrong here. But while a future state seems thus called for, this does not of itself secure eternal existence for the wicked, nor would such existence be "immortality" in the positive sense. In view of the mystery of sin, the lamp of reason grows dim. For further light we must look to revelation. II. The Biblical Doctrine-the Old Testament.
1. Starting-Point-Man's Relation to God:
The Biblical view of immortality starts from man's relation to God. Man, as made in the image of God (Genesis 1:27), is fitted for the knowledge of God, for fellowship with Him. This implies that man is more than an animal; that he has a life which transcends time. In it already lies the pledge of immortality if man is obedient.
With this corresponds the account given of man's creation and original state. Man is a being composed of body and soul; both are integral parts of his personality. He was created for life, not for mortality. The warning, "In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Genesis 2:17), implies that if man continued obedient he would live. But this is not an immortality of the soul only. It is a life in the body (compare Genesis 3:22). Its type is such cases as Enoch and Elijah (Genesis 5:24 2 Kings 2:11, 12; compare Psalm 49:15; Psalm 73:24).
2. Sin and Death:
The frustration of this original destiny of man comes through sin. Sin entails death (see DEATH). Death in its physical aspect is a separation of soul and body-a breaking up of the unity of man's personality. In one sense, therefore, it is the destruction of the immortality which was man's original destiny. It does not, however, imply the extinction of the soul. That survives, but not in a state that can be called "life." It passes into Sheol-the sad, gloomy abode of the dead, in which there is no joy, activity, knowledge of the affairs of earth, or (in the view of Nature) remembrance of God, or praise of His goodness (on this subject, and the Hebrew belief in the future state generally, see ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT; DEATH; SHEOL). This is not future "life"-not "immortality."
It is the part of grace and redemption to restore immortality in the true sense. Had the world been left to develop in sin, no further hope could have come to it. The picture of Sheol would have become ever darker as the idea of retribution grew stronger; it could never become brighter.
3. Grace and Redemption-the True Immortality:
But God's grace intervened: "Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom" (Job 33:24). God's mercy breaks in on the hopelessness of man's lot. He gives to man His promises; makes His covenant with man; admits man to His fellowship (Genesis 3:15; Genesis 4:4; Genesis 5:24; Genesis 6:8, 9; 12:1-3; Genesis 15, etc.). In this fellowship the soul was raised again to its true life even on earth. But this held in it also a hope for the future. The promises placed in the forefront as tokens of God's favors were indeed predominatingly temporal-promises for this life-but within these (the kernel within the shell) was the supreme possession of God Himself (Psalm 4:6; Psalm 16:2). This held in it the hope of redemption and the principle of every good.
Deliverance from Sheol.
Here we reach the core of the Old Testament hope of immortality. Such fellowship as the believer had with God could not be lost, even in Sheol; beyond that was deliverance from Sheol. In their highest moments it was this hope that sustained patriarchs, psalmists, prophets, in their outlook on the future. Doubt might cloud their minds; there might be seasons of darkness and even despair; but it was impossible in moments of strong faith to believe that God would ever really desert them. The eternal God was their dwelling-place; them were everlasting arms (Deuteronomy 33:27; compare Psalm 90:1). Their hope of immortality, therefore, was, in principle, the hope not merely of an "immortality of the soul," but likewise of resurrection-of complete deliverance from Sheol. Thus it is clearly in the impassioned outburst of Job (19:25-27; compare 14:13), and in many of the psalms. The hope always clothes itself in the form of complete deliverance from Sheol. Thus in Psalm 17:14, the wicked have their portion "in this life," but, "As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness" (the American Standard Revised Version "with beholding thy form"); and in Psalm 49:14, the wicked are "appointed as a flock for Sheol," but "God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol; for he will receive me" (same expression as that regarding Enoch, Genesis 5:24; compare Psalm 73:24). It will be remembered that when Jesus expounded the declaration, "I am the God of Abraham," etc., it was as a pledge of resurrection (Matthew 22:31 f). The idea comes to final expression in the declaration in Daniel of a resurrection of the just and unjust (12:2). For further development and illustration see ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
4. Later Jewish Thought:
Later Jewish thought carried out these ideas of the Old Testament to further issues. A blessed future for the righteous was now accepted, and was definitely connected with the idea of resurrection. The wicked remained in Sheol, now conceived of as a place of retribution. The Gentiles, too, shared this doom.
III. The Christian Hope.
1. Immortality through Christ:
In full consonance with what is revealed in part in the Old Testament is the hope of immortality discovered in the New Testament. The ring of this joyful hope is heard in every part of the apostolic writings. "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," says Peter, "who according to his great mercy begat us again unto a living hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, unto an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you" (1 Peter 1:3 f). Paul declares, "Our Saviour Christ Jesus, who. brought life and immortality (incorruption) to light through the gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10). In Romans 2:7 he had spoken of those who "by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruption, eternal life." This immortality, it is seen, is part of the eternal life bestowed through Jesus on believers. It is guaranteed by Christ's own resurrection and life in glory. The nature of this hope of the gospel may now be further analyzed.
(1) Survival of the Soul.
The soul survives the body. A future state for both righteous and wicked is plainly declared by Jesus Himself. "He that believeth on me," He said to Martha, "though he die, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth on me shall never die" (John 11:25 f). To His disciples He said, "If I go and prepare a place for you, I come again, and will receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also" (John 14:3). Compare His words to the penitent thief: "To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise" (Luke 23:43). The survival of both righteous and wicked is implied in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). So in many other places (e.g. Matthew 5:29; 10:28; 11:21-24; 12:41, etc.). The same is the teaching of the epistles. The doctrine of a future judgment depends on and presupposes this truth (Romans 2:5-11 2 Corinthians 5:10, etc.).
(2) Union with Christ in Unseen World.
Death for the redeemed, though a result of sin, does not destroy the soul's relation to God and to Christ. The eternal life implanted in the soul in time blossoms in its fruition into the life and blessedness of eternity (Romans 8:10 Philippians 1:21 Colossians 1:27). The soul is, indeed, in an incomplete state till the resurrection. It "waits for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body" (Romans 8:23). But its state, though incomplete, is still a happy one. Hades has lost its gloom, and is for it a "Paradise" (Luke 23:43). It dwells in a chamber of the Father's house (John 14:2; John 17:24). It is to be, even in the unclothed state ("absent from the body"), "at home with the Lord" (2 Corinthians 5:8). It is for it an object of desire to be "with Christ" in that state after death (Philippians 1:21). The pictures in Rev, though highly figurative, indicate a condition of great blessedness (Revelation 7:9-17).
(3) The Resurrection.
The fullness of the blessedness of immortality implies the resurrection. The resurrection is a cardinal article of Christ's teaching (Matthew 22:29-32 John 5:25-29; John 11:23-26). He Himself is the Lord of life, and life-giver in the resurrection (John 5:21, 25, 26; John 11:25, "I am the resurrection, and the life"). The resurrection of believers is secured by His own resurrection. Jesus died; He rose again (see RESURRECTION). His resurrection carries with it the certainty of the resurrection of all His people. This is the great theme of 1 Corinthians 15. As Christ lives, they shall live also (John 14:19). The believers who are alive at His Parousia shall be changed (1 Corinthians 15:51 1 Thessalonians 4:17); those who are dead shall be raised first of all (1 Thessalonians 4:16). The resurrection body shall be a body like to Christ's own (Philippians 3:21)-incorruptible, glorious, powerful, spiritual, immortal (1 Corinthians 15:42, 53 f). This is not to be confused with sameness of material particles (1 Corinthians 15:37 f), yet there is the connection of a vital bond between the old body and the new. This is the hope of the believer, without which his redemption would not be complete.
(4) The Wicked Also Raised.
The wicked also are raised, not, however, to glory, but for judgment (John 5:29 Acts 24:15 Revelation 20:12-15). The same truth is implied in all passages on the last judgment. Excluded from the blessedness of the righteous, their state is described by both Jesus and His apostles as one of uttermost tribulation and anguish (e.g. Matthew 25:46 Mark 9:43-50 Romans 2:8). This is not "immortality" or "life," though the continued existence of the soul is implied in it (see PUNISHMENT, EVERLASTING; HELL; RETRIBUTION).
(5) Eternal Life.
The condition of the blessed in their state of immortality is one of unspeakable felicity of both soul and body forever. There are, indeed, degrees of glory-this is carefully and consistently taught (Matthew 25:14 Luke 19:12 1 Corinthians 3:10-15; 1 Corinthians 15:41 Philippians 3:10-14 2 Timothy 4:7 1 John 2:28)-but the condition as a whole is one of perfect satisfaction, holiness and blessedness (compare Matthew 13:43; Matthew 25:34 Romans 2:7, 10 Romans 12:3, etc.). The blessedness of this eternal state includes such elements as the following:
(1) restoration to God's image and likeness to Christ (1 Corinthians 15:49 2 Corinthians 3:18 Ephesians 4:24 Colossians 3:10 1 John 3:2);
(2) perfect holiness in the possession of God's Spirit (2 Corinthians 7:1 Philippians 1:6 Revelation 21:27; Revelation 22:4, 11);
(3) the unveiled vision of God's glory (Revelation 22:4; compare Psalm 17:15);
(4) freedom from all sorrow, pain and death (Revelation 21:3 f);
(5) power of unwearied service (Revelation 22:3).
The contrast between the Biblical view of immortality and that of heathenism and of the schools will now be obvious. It is not mere future existence; not a bare, abstract immortality of the soul; it is the result of redemption and of renewal by God's spirit; it embraces the whole personality, soul and body; it is not shared by the unholy; it includes the perfection of rational, moral and spiritual blessedness, in an environment suitable to such glorified existence. As such it is the supreme prize after which every believer is called to strive (Philippians 3:13 f).
Ingersoll Lectures on Immortality, by Professor William James, Professor Osler, etc.; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Orr, Christian View of God and the World, Lects iv, v, with App. to v; works specified in the article on ESCHATOLOGY.