International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
GAREB, THE HILL OF
A hill in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, which was one of the landmarks to which the prophet Jeremiah (31:39) foresaw that the city should extend. The site is unknown. Cheyne (Encyclopedia Biblica) would connect this with the "mountain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom westward" (Joshua 15:8), but this is too far South; it is inconceivable that the prophet could have imagined the city extending so far in this direction; most probably the hill was to the North-the one natural direction for the city's extension-and is now incorporated in the modern suburbs.
E. W. G. Masterman
HACHILAH, HILL OF
ha-ki'-la, hak'-i-la, (chakhilah): A hill in the wilderness of Judah, associated with the wanderings of David. It is stated (1 Samuel 23:19) to be "on the South of the desert" (or Jeshimon), and (1 Samuel 26:1) to be "before (on the front (i.e. edge) of) the desert." It was near Ziph and Maon. The only plausible hypothesis is that it is represented by the ridge Dhahret el-Kolah in the wilderness of Ziph, toward the desert of En-gedi (PEF, III, 313, Sh XXI).
HILL, HILL COUNTRY
hil'-kun-tri: The common translation of three Hebrew words:
(1) gibh`ah, from root meaning "to be curved," is almost always translated "hill"; it is a pecuIiarly appropriate designation for the very rounded hills of Palestine; it is never used for a range of mountains. Several times it occurs as a place-name, "Gibeah of Judah" (Joshua 15:20, 57); "Gibeah of Benjamin" or "Saul" (Judges 19:12-16, etc.); "Gibeah of Phinehas" (Joshua 24:33 margin), etc. (see GIBEAH). Many such hills were used for idolatrous rites (1 Kings 14:23 2 Kings 17:10 Jeremiah 2:20, etc.).
(2) har, frequently translated in the King James Version "hill," is in the Revised Version (British and American) usually translated "mountain" (compare Genesis 7:19 Joshua 15:9; Joshua 18:15, and many other references), or "hillcountry." Thus we have the "hill-country of the Amorites" (Deuteronomy 1:7, 19, 20); the "hill-country of Gilead" (Deuteronomy 3:12); the "hill-country of Ephraim" (Joshua 17:15, 16, 18; Joshua 19:50; Joshua 20:7, etc.); the "hill-country of Judah" (Joshua 11:21; Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:11 2 Chronicles 27:4, etc.; and (he oreine) Luke 1:39, 65); the "hill-country of Naphtali" (Joshua 20:7). For geographical descriptions see PALESTINE; COUNTRY; EPHRAIM; JUDAH, etc.
(3) `ophel, is translated by "hill" in 2 Kings 5:24 Isaiah 32:14 Micah 4:8, but may possibly mean "tower" or "fort." In other passages the word occurs with the article as a place-name.
E. W. G. Masterman
HILL; MOUNT; MOUNTAIN
(1) The commonest word is har (also harar, and herer), which is rendered "hill," "mount" or "mountain." It occurs several hundreds of times. In a number of places the Revised Version (British and American) changes "hill" to "mountain," e.g. Genesis 7:19, mountains covered by flood; Exodus 24:4, Horeb; Joshua 18:14, mountain before Beth-horon: Judges 16:3, mountain before Hebron; Psalm 95:4, "The heights of the mountains are his also"; 121:1, "I will lift up mine eyes unto the mountains." "Hill" remains in Deuteronomy 11:11, "land of hills and valleys"; 1 Kings 20:23, "god of the hills"; Psalm 2:6, "my holy hill of Zion": 98:8, "hills sing for joy." "Mount" is changed "hill-country" in Deuteronomy 1:7, "hill-country of the Amorites"; Judges 12:15, "hill-country of the Amalekites"; Deuteronomy 3:12, "hill-country of Gilead"; but Genesis 3:21, "mountain of Gilead"; and Judges 7:3, "Mount Gilead." "Hill" or "hills" is changed to "hill-country" in Deuteronomy 1:7 Joshua 9:1; Joshua 10:40; Joshua 11:16; Joshua 17:16; Joshua 21:11. In Deuteronomy 1:41, 43, the American Standard Revised Version changes "hill" to "hill-country," while the English Revised Version has "mountain." The reasons for these differences of treatment are not in all cases apparent.
(2) The Greek oros, is perhaps etymologically akin to har. It occurs often in the New Testament, and is usually translated "mount" or "mountain." In three places (Matthew 5:14 Luke 4:29; Luke 9:37) the King James Version has hill, which the Revised Version (British and American) retains, except in Luke 9:37, "when they were come down from the mountain" (of the transfiguration). The derivative oreinos, "hill country," occurs in Luke 1:39, 65.
(3) The common Hebrew word for "hill" is gibh`ah = Gibeah (Judges 19:12); compare Geba, gebha` (1 Samuel 13:3); Gibeon, gib`on (Joshua 9:3), from root gabha`, "to be high"; compare Arabic qubbeh, "dome"; Latin caput; kephale.
(4) In 1 Samuel 9:11, the King James Version has "hill" for ma`aleh, root 'alah, "to ascend"; compare Arabic `ala', "to be high," and `ali, "high." Here and elsewhere the Revised Version (British and American) has "ascent."
(5) English Versions of the Bible has "hill" in Isaiah 5 for qeren, "horn"; compare Arabic qarn, "horn," which is also used for a mountain peak.
(6) Tur, is translated "mountain" in Daniel 2:35, 45, but the Revised Version margin "rock" in Daniel 2:35. The Arabic tur, "mountain," is especially used with Sinai, jebel tur sina'.
(7) mutstsabh (Isaiah 29:3), is translated in the King James Version "mount" in the English Revised Version "fort," in the American Standard Revised Version "posted troops"; compare matstsabh, "garrison" (1 Samuel 14:1, etc.), from root natsabh, "to set"; compare Arabic nacab, "to set."
(8) colelah, from calal, "to raise," is in the King James Version and the English Revised Version "mount," the King James Version margin "engine of shot," the American Standard Revised Version "mound" (Jeremiah 32:24; Jeremiah 33:4 Ezekiel 4:2; Ezekiel 17; 21:22; 26:8 Daniel 11:15).
2. Figurative and Descriptive:
The mountains and hills of Palestine are the features of the country, and were much in the thoughts of the Biblical writers. Their general aspect is that of vast expanses of rock. As compared with better-watered regions Descriptive of the earth, the verdure is sparse and incidental. Snow remains throughout the year on Hermon and the two highest peaks of Lebanon, although in the summer it is in great isolated drifts which are not usually visible from below. In Palestine proper, there are no snow mountains. Most of the valleys are dry wadies, and the roads often follow these wadies, which are to the traveler veritable ovens. It is when he reaches a commanding height and sees the peaks and ridges stretching away one after the other, with perhaps, through some opening to the West, a gleam of the sea like molten metal, that he thinks of the vastness and enduring strength of the mountains. At sunset the rosy lights are succeeded by the cool purple shadows that gradually fade into cold gray, and the traveler is glad of the shelter of his tent. The stars come out, and there is no sound outside the camp except perhaps the cries of jackals or the barking of some goat-herd's dog. These mountains are apt to repel the casual traveler by their bareness. They have no great forests on their slopes. Steep and rugged peaks like those of the Alps are entirely absent. There are no snow peaks or glaciers. There are, it is true, cliffs and crags, but the general outlines are not striking. Nevertheless, these mountains and hills have a great charm for those who have come to know them. To the Biblical writers they are symbols of eternity (Genesis 49:26 Deuteronomy 33:15 Job 15:7 Habakkuk 3:6). They are strong and steadfast, but they too are the creation of God, and they manifest His power (Psalm 18:7; Psalm 97:5 Isaiah 40:12; Isaiah 41:15; Isaiah 54:10 Jeremiah 4:24 Nahum 1:5 Habakkuk 3:6). The hills were places of heathen sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:2 1 Kings 11:7 2 Kings 16:4; 2 Kings 17:10 Ezekiel 6:13 Hosea 4:13), and also of sacrifice to Yahweh (Genesis 22:2; Genesis 31:54 Joshua 8:30). Zion is the hill of the Lord (Psalm 2:6; Psalm 135:21 Isaiah 8:18 Joel 3:21 Micah 4:2).
3. Particular Mountains:
Many proper names are associated with the mountains and hills: as Abarim, Amalekites, Ammah, Amorites, Ararat, Baalah, Baal-hermon, Bashan, Beth-el, Bether, Carmel, Chesalon, Ebal, Ephraim, Ephron, Esau, Gaash, Gareb, Geba, Gerizim, Gibeah, Gibeon, Gilboa, Gilead, Hachilah, Halak, Hebron, Heres, Hermon, Hor, Horeb, Jearim, Judah, Lebanon, Mizar, Moreh, Moriah, Naphtali, Nebo, Olives, Olivet, Paran, Perazim, Pisgah, Samaria, Seir, Senir, Sephar, Shepher, Sinai, Sion, Sirion, Tabor, Zalmon, Zemaraim, Zion. See also "mountain of the east" (Genesis 10:30); "mountains of the leopards" (Songs 4:8); "rocks of the wild goats" (1 Samuel 24:2); "hill of the foreskins" (Gibeah-haaraloth) (Joshua 5:3); "mountains of brass" (Zechariah 6:1); "hill of God" (Gibeah of God) (1 Samuel 10:5); "hill of Yahweh" (Psalm 24:3); "mount of congregation" (Isaiah 14:13); see also Matthew 4:8; Matthew 5:1; Matthew 14:23; Matthew 15:29; Matthew 17:1; Matthew 28:16 Luke 8:32 Galatians 4:25.
Alfred Ely Day
MIZAR, THE HILL
mi'-zar, (har mits`ar; oros mikros): The name of a mountain found only in Psalm 42:6; "I remember thee from the land of Jordan, and the Hermons, from the hill Mizar." The term may be taken as an appellative meaning "littleness" and the phrase mehar mits`ar would then mean "from the little mountain," i.e. the little mountain of Zion. Some scholars think that the "m" in mehar may have arisen from dittography, and that we should read, "from the land of Jordan, and the Hermons, O thou little mountain (of Zion)." G.A. Smith discusses the question in a note (HGHL, 477). He suggests that certain names found in the district (za`ura, wady za`arah, and Khirbet Mazara) may be a reminiscence of the name of a hill in the district called Mits`ar; and surly none other would have been put by the Psalmist in apposition to the Hermons. Cheyne says: "To me this appendage to Hermonim seems a poetic loss. Unless the little mountain has a symbolic meaning I could wish it away." I cannot see this: the symbolic meanings suggested for Hermonim and Mits`ar are all forced, and even if we got a natural one, it would be out of place after the literal land of Jordan. To employ all as proper names is suitable to a lyric. No identification is at present possible.
MOREH, HILL OF
mo'-re (gibh`ath ha-moreh, "hill of the teacher"; Codex Vaticanus Gabaathamora; Codex Alexandrinus, tou bomou tou Abor): The Hebrew moreh is derived from the verb yarah, "to teach," "to direct," and indicates one who directs, or gives oracular answers. We might therefore read "hill of the teacher," the height being associated with such a person who had his seat here. The hill is named only in describing the position of the Midianites before Gideon's attack (Judges 7:1). If the identification of the Well of Harod with `Ain Jalud is correct, Gideon must have occupied the slopes to the East of Jezreel. The Midianite camp was in the valley of Jezreel (Judges 6:33). The Hebrew text in Judges 7:1, which has probably suffered some corruption, seems to mean that the Midianites lay North of the position held by Gideon, their lines running from the hill of Moreh in the plain. The hill can hardly have been other than Jebel ed-Duchy, often called Little Hermon, which rises boldly from the northern edge of the vale of Jezreel, with Shunem (Solam) lying at its western foot. Moore ("Judges," ICC, 200) would lay the scene in the neighborhood of Shechem, but there is no good reason to doubt the accuracy of the tradition which places it at the eastern end of the plain of Esdraelon.