International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
hal'-o, hal'-od, hal'-o-ed ("to render or treat as holy," Anglo-Saxon halgian, from halig, "holy"): It translates several forms of qadhash, "set apart," "devote," "consecrate," frequently rendered in the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American), the American Standard Revised Version "consecrate," "dedicate," "holy," and especially "sanctify," closely synonymous, "hallow" perhaps containing more of the thought of reverence, sacredness, holiness. It embraces the idea of marked separateness. It is applied to persons, as the priest (Leviticus 22:2, 3); to places or buildings, as the middle of the temple court (1 Kings 8:64); the tabernacle (Exodus 40:9); to things, like the portion of the sacrifice set apart for the priests (Numbers 18:8); to times and seasons, as the Sabbath (Jeremiah 17:22 Ezekiel 20:20) and the Jubilee year (Leviticus 25:10); to God Himself (Leviticus 22:32). Its underlying idea of the separateness of holy nature or holy use works out into several often overlapping senses: (1) To set apart, dedicate, offer, reserve, for the worship or service of God: Exodus 28:38, "The holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts"; also Leviticus 22:3 Numbers 18:29, etc.; 2 Kings 12:4, "All the money the hallowed things" (the King James Version "dedicated"), etc. (2) To make holy, by selecting, setting apart, claiming, or acknowledging as His own: Genesis 2:3, "God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it" (the King James Version "sanctified"); but Exodus 20:11 (King James Version, the English Revised Version, the American Standard Revised Version), "hallowed." So of the temple (1 Kings 9:7); of the firstborn, spared in Egypt (Numbers 3:13). (3) To dedicate or consecrate by formal ceremonial, with the accompanying idea of cleansing from sin and uncleanness: Exodus 29:1, "This is the thing that thou shalt do unto them (Aaron and his sons) to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office." The whole chapter is devoted to the elaborate ceremonial, consisting of ablutions, endowment in priestly robes and paraphernalia, anointing with oil, the offering of a bullock for a sin offering, and of a ram, the placing of the blood of another ram upon the right ear, right thumb, right great toe of each, the wave offering, the anointing of the holy garments, and the eating of the consecrated food, all this lasting seven days, and indicating the completeness with which they were set apart, the deep necessity of purification, and the solemnity and sacredness of the office. The tabernacle and its furniture were similarly "hallowed" by a simpler ceremony, using the anointing oil. (4) To render ritually fit for religious service, worship, or use: Leviticus 16:19, "Hallow it (the altar with the sprinkled blood) from the uncleannesses of the children of Israel"; Numbers 6:11, "The priest shall. make atonement for him, for that he sinned by reason of the dead, and shall hallow his head that same day." (5) To hold sacred, reverence, keep holy: Jeremiah 17:22, "But hallow ye the Sabbath day," by keeping it distinct and separate, especially (Jeremiah 17:24, 27) by refraining from unnecessary work, from burden-bearing, travel, or traffic (Nehemiah 13:16). See Exodus 20:8-11 (the Sabbath Commandment). (6) To revere, hold in awe, and reverence as holy and "separated from sinners" in majesty, power, sacredness: Leviticus 22:32, "And ye shall not profane my holy name; but I will be hallowed among the children of Israel." Qadhash is elsewhere translated "sanctify" in this connection, meaning "to be manifested in awe-producing majesty, power, or grace": Ezekiel 38:23, "And I will. sanctify myself, and I will make myself known in the eyes of many nations; and they shall know that I am Yahweh"; compare Ezekiel 28:22, 23, etc.