International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(triches kamelou): In Matthew 3:4 and Mark 1:6 the description of John's raiment is explicit to the extent of telling the kind of hair of which his raiment was made. It is probable that his garment was made of a tawed camel skin, for the more expensive woven camel's hair garment would not be in keeping with the rest of the description. It is still common among the poor in some parts of Syria, when a camel or other animal dies, to remove its skin and, after treating the inner surface to stop decomposition, to make it up into various domestic articles. The writer once saw a peasant dragging a skin along the road which proved to be that of a donkey which had just died on the route. His intention was probably to make it up into a cloak. Some believe that Elijah's mantle was of camel's hair (2 Kings 1:8; compare Zechariah 13:4). Of that we cannot be sure, for in the East today the hairy garment is usually goat's hair or wool either woven or still clinging to the skin. It was much more likely to have been one of these latter. See SHEEP. Camel's hair, when woven into fabrics, as in rugs, makes an article of even softer and more glossy texture than wool.
James A. Patch
('ez): The word for she-goat is used elliptically to mean goats' hair, which was used in the tabernacle furnishings in the form of curtains (Exodus 26:7; Exodus 36:14). Goats' hair was probably used in the Midianite and Israelite camps in much the same way as in the Bedouin camps today (compare Numbers 31:20). The tents, tent ropes and rugs are made of spun goats' hair. The provision sacks which hold wheat, rice, etc., and the saddlebags are made of the same material. A strip of the cloth rolled up furnishes a bolster for the head while sleeping (compare 1 Samuel 19:13, 16). Goats' hair cloth is admirab1y suited to stand the hard usage of a frequently shifting encampment. The children of Israel appreciated its utility, even for the tabernacle, where to the modern critical eye it would have looked out of place, matched against scarlet and fine linen (Exodus 25:4; Exodus 35:6, 26). The fact that goats' hair was used is good indication of the comparative crudeness of the tabernacle, when contrasted with present-day furnishings.
See also HAIR; WEAVING.
James A. Patch
har (se`ar, sa`ar, Aramaic se`ar, and their derivatives; thrix, gen. case trichos, kome):
1. Hair Fashions:
Hair was worn in different fashions by the Orientals of Biblical times, and not always in the same way among the same people in different epochs. We know this clearly from Egyptian literature and monuments, as well as from the writings of Greek authors (especially Herodotus), that the dwellers on the Nile had their heads shaved in early youth, leaving but a side lock until maturity was attained, when this mark of childhood was taken away. Priests and warriors kept their heads closely shaved; nothing but the exigencies of arduous warfare were allowed to interfere with this custom. On the other hand, the Hebrew people, like their Babylonian neighbors (Herod. i.195), affected long and well-cared-for, bushy curls of hair as emblems of manly beauty. Proofs thereof are not infrequent in the Scriptures and elsewhere. Samson's (Judges 16:13, 19) and Absalom's (2 Samuel 14:26) long luxuriant hair is specially mentioned, and the Shulammite sings of the locks of her beloved which are "bushy (the Revised Version, margin "curling"), and black as a raven" (Songs 5:11). Josephus (Ant., VIII, vii, 3 (185)) reports that Solomon's body-guard was distinguished by youthful beauty and "luxuriant heads of hair." In the history of Samson we read of "the seven locks of his head" (Judges 16:19). It is likely that the expression signifies the plaits of hair which are even now often worn by the young Bedouin warrior of the desert.
2. Hair in Idol Worship:
It is well known that among the surrounding heathen nations the hair of childhood or youth was often shaved and consecrated at idolatrous shrines (compare Herod. ii.65 for Egypt). Frequently this custom marked an initiatory rite into the service of a divinity (e.g. that of Orotal (Bacchus) in Arabia, Herod. iii.8). It was therefore an abomination of the Gentiles in the eyes of the Jew, which is referred to in Leviticus 19:27 Jeremiah 9:26; Jeremiah 25:23; Jeremiah 49:32. The Syriac version of the latter passage renders, "Ye shall not let your hair grow long" (i.e. in order to cut it as a religious rite in honor of an idol). It is, however, probable that among the Jews, as now among many classes of Mohammedans, the periodical cropping of the hair, when it had become too cumbersome, was connected with some small festivity, when the weight of the hair was ascertained, and its weight in silver was given in charity to the poor. At least, the weighing of Absalom's hair (2 Samuel 14:26) may be referred to some such custom, which is not unparalleled in other countries. The use of balances in connection with the shaving-off of the hair in Ezekiel 5:1 is certainly out of the common. See illustration, "Votive Offering," on p. 1302.
3. The Nazirite Vow:
We may also compare the shaving of the head of the Nazirite to these heathen practices, though the resemblance is merely superficial. The man who made a vow to God was responsible to Him with his whole body and being. Not even a hair was to be injured willfully during the whole period of the vow, for all belonged to God. The conclusion of the Nazirite vow was marked by sacrifices and the shaving of the head at the door of the sanctuary (Numbers 6:1-21), indicative of a new beginning of life. The long untouched hair was therefore considered as the emblem of personal devotion (or devotedness) to the God of all strength. Thus it was an easy step to the thought that in the hair was the seat of strength of a Samson (Judges 16:17, 20). God has numbered the very hairs of the head (Matthew 10:30 Luke 12:7), which to human beings conveys the idea of the innumerableness (Psalm 40:12; Psalm 69:4). What God can number, He can also protect, so that not even a hair of the head might "fall to the earth" or "perish." These phrases express complete safety (1 Samuel 14:45 2 Samuel 14:11 1 Kings 1:52 Luke 21:18 Acts 27:34).
4. Later Fashions:
In New Testament times, especially in the Diaspora, the Jews frequently adopted the fashion of the Romans in cropping the hair closely (1 Corinthians 11:14); still the fear of being tainted by the idolatrous practice of the heathen, which is specially forbidden in Leviticus 21:5, was so great that the side locks remained untouched and were permitted to grow ad libitum. This is still the custom among the Jews of Eastern Europe and the Orient.
See also HEAD.
5. Woman's Hair:
If Hebrew men paid much attention to their hair, it was even more so among Hebrew women. Long black tresses were the pride of the Jewish maiden and matron (Songs 7:5 John 11:2 1 Corinthians 11:5, 6, 15), but many of the expressions used in connection with the "coiffures" of women do not convey to us more than a vague idea. The "locks" of the King James Version in Songs 4:1, 3; Songs 6:7 Isaiah 47:2 (tsemmah) probably do not refer to the hair, but should be translated (as does the Revised Version (British and American), which follows the Septuagint) by "veil." dallah (Songs 7:5), signifies the slender threads which represent the unfinished web in the loom (compare Isaiah 38:12), and thence the flowing hair of women (the Revised Version (British and American) "hair"). rehaTim (the Revised Version (British and American) "tresses"), in the same verse of the So of Songs means literally the "gutters" at which the flocks were watered (compare Genesis 30:38, 41), and thus the long plaits of the maiden with which the lover toys and in which he is held captive. The braiding or dressing of woman's hair is expressed in 2 Kings 9:30 and Judith 10:3. In New Testament times Christian women are warned against following the fashionable world in elaborate hairdressing (1 Timothy 2:9 1 Peter 3:3).
The care of the hair, especially the periodical cutting of the same, early necessitated the trade of the barber. The Hebrew word gallabh is found in Ezekiel 5:1, and the plural form of the same word occurs in an inscription at Citium (Cyprus) (CIS, 1586), where the persons thus described clearly belonged to the priests or servants of a temple.
Numerous were the cosmetics and ointments applied to the hair (Ecclesiastes 9:8 Matthew 6:17; perhaps Ruth 3:3), but some, reserved for sacramental purposes, were prohibited for profane use (Exodus 30:32 Psalm 133:2). Such distinction we find also in Egypt, where the walls of temple laboratories were inscribed with extensive recipes of such holy oils, while the medical papyri (see especially Papyrus Ebers, plates 64-67) contain numerous ointments for the hair, the composition of some of which is ascribed to a renowned queen of antiquity. Even Greek and Roman medical authors have transmitted to us the knowledge of some such prescriptions compounded, it is said, by Queen Cleopatra VI of Egypt, the frivolous friend of Caesar and Antony (see my dissertation, Die uber die medicinischen Kenntnisse der alten Aegypter berichtenden Papyri, ere, Leipzig, 1888, 121-32). We know from Josephus (Ant., XVI, viii, 1 (233)), that Herod the Great, in his old age, dyed his hair black, a custom, however, which does not appear to be specifically Jewish, as hair-dyes as well as means for bleaching the hair were well known in Greece and Rome. It is certain that the passage Matthew 5:36 would not have been spoken, had this been a common custom in the days of the Lord. A special luxury is mentioned by Josephus (Ant., VIII, vii, 3 (185)), who states that the young men who formed the body-guard of King Solomon were in the habit, on festive occasions, of sprinkling their long hair with gold-dust (psegma chrusou).
For the Jews the anointing of the head was synonymous with joy and prosperity (compare Psalm 23:5; Psalm 92:10 Hebrews 1:9; compare also "oil of joy," Isaiah 61:3, and "oil of gladness," Psalm 45:7). It was also, like the washing of feet, a token of hospitality (Psalm 23:5 Luke 7:46).
On the contrary, it was the custom in times of personal or national affliction and mourning to wear the hair unanointed and disheveled, or to cover the head with dust and ashes (2 Samuel 14:2 Joshua 7:6 Job 2:12), or to tear the hair or to cut it off (Ezra 9:3 Nehemiah 13:25 Jeremiah 7:29).
8. Symbolical Use of Word:
We have referred to the thickness of hair which supplied the Hebrew with a suitable expression for the conception "innumerable." Hair is also expressive of minuteness; thus the 700 left-handed men of Benjamin were able to "sling stones at a hairbreadth, and not miss" (Judges 20:16). Gray hairs and the hoary white of old age were highly honored by the Jews (Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 20:29; APC 2Macc 6:23). Besides expressing old age (Isaiah 46:4), they stand for wisdom (The Wisdom of Solomon 4:9 (10)). Sometimes white hair is the emblem of a glorious, if not Divine, presence (Daniel 7:9; APC 2Macc 15:13; Revelation 1:14). Calamity befalling the gray-headed was doubly terrible (Genesis 42:38; Genesis 44:29). The "hair of the flesh" is said to "stand up" (Job 4:15; APC Sirach 27:14) when sudden terror or fear takes hold of a person. The symbolical language of Isaiah 7:20 uses the "hair of the feet" (see FEET) and "the beard" as synonymous with "the humble" and the "mighty of the people."
Camel's hair (Matthew 3:4 Mark 1:6) is mentioned in connection with the description of John the Baptist's raiment. It represents, according to Jerome, a rough shirt worn under the coat or wrapper, though a rather soft fabric is produced in Arabia from the finer wool of the camel.
Goat's hair was the material of a cloth used for wearing apparel and for a more or less waterproof covering of tents and bundles. It is the black tent-cloth of Kedar' (Songs 1:5 Exodus 26:7; Exodus 36:14). In New Testament times it was the special product of Paul's native province, Cilicia, whence its name cilicium, and its manufacture formed the apostle's own trade (Acts 18:3). It is also mentioned as a material for stuffing pillows (1 Samuel 19:13).
See also WEAVING.
H. L. E. Luering
PLUCKING OFF THE HAIR
See HAIR, 7; PUNISHMENTS.
HAIR, PLUCKING OF THE