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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

ge'-zer (gezer): A city of great military importance in ancient times, the site of which has recently been thoroughly explored. The excavations at this spot are the most thorough and extensive of any in Palestine, and have not only done much to confirm the history of the place, as known from Biblical and other sources, but have also thrown a flood of light upon the general history, civilization and religion of Palestine in pre-Israelite and Israelite times.

1. The Discovery and Position of the Site:

The long-lost site of Gezer was discovered by M. Clermont-Ganneau in 1873, and his suggestion that the modern name for the place, Tell Jezer (or Tell el Jezereh) was a survival of the ancient name was confirmed by his further discovery of three bilingual inscriptions, in Hebrew and Greek, cut on surfaces of rock by a certain Alkios, apparently once the governor of the city; in one of them occurred the expression "the boundary of Gezer."

The natural features and the position of Tell Jezer abundantly explain the extreme importance of Gezer in ancient times. The buried remains crown a narrow hill, running from Northwest to Southeast, about 1,700 ft. long by 300 to 500 ft. broad. The approach is steep on every side, and in early times, before the accumulation around the sides of the rubbish of some millenniums, must have been much more so. The hill stands, like an outpost, projecting into the great plain, and is connected with the low hills behind it, part of the Shephelah, with but a narrow neck. At the foot of the hill runs a great high road from Egypt to Syria; to the North lies the Vale of Aijalon, across which runs the modern carriage road to Jerusalem, and up which ran the great high road, by the Beth-horons, to the platenu North of Jerusalem; to the South lies the Vale of Sorek, where stood Bethshemesh, and along which went a great highway from the country of the Philistines to the hill country of Judah. Today the Jerus-Jaffa railway, after sweeping some miles away in the plain round the whole western and southern sides of the site, passes along this open vale to plunge into the narrow defile-the Wady Isma`in, which it follows to Jerusalem. From the summit of the Tell, a vast expanse of country is visible between the long blue line of the Mediterranean to the West, and the abrupt and lofty mountains of Judah to the East. That it has been all through history the scene of military contest is fully understood when its strategic position is appreciated; no military leader even today, if holding the highlands of Palestine against invasion, could afford to neglect such an outpost.

2. History of Gezer:

Although the excavation of the site shows that it was occupied by a high civilization and a considerable population at an extremely early period, the first historical mention is in the list of the Palestinian cities captured by Tahutmes III (XVIIIth Dynasty, about 1500 B.C.). From this time it was probably under Egyptian governors (the Egyptian remains at all periods are considerable), but from the Tell el-Amarna Letters, a century or so later, we learn that Egyptian influence was then on the wane. Three of these famous clay tablets are dated from Gezer itself and are written in the name of the governor Yapachi; he was then hard pressed by the Khabiri, and he appealed for help in vain to Egypt. In other letters belonging to this series, there are references to this city. In one, a certain freebooter named Lapaya makes excuses that he had broken into the city. He "has been slandered. Is it an offense that he has entered Gazri and levied the people?" (no. CCXL, Petrie's translation).

In the well-known "So of Triumph" of Merenptah, who is considered by many to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus, occurs the expression "Gezer is taken." (In connection with this it is interesting to notice that an ivory pectoral with the cartouche of Meren-ptah was unearthed at Gezer.)

In the time of Joshua's invasion a certain "king of Gezer" named Horam (horam, but in Septuagint Ailam, or Elam) came to the assistance of Lachish against the Israelites, but was slain (Joshua 10:33). Gezer was taken, but the Canaanites were not driven out, but remained in servitude (Joshua 16:10 Judges 1:29). The city became one of the towns on the southern border of Ephraim (Joshua 16:3), but was assigned to the Kohath clan of the Levites (Joshua 21:21). In 2 Samuel 5:25 (the King James Version "Gazer") we read that David chased the Philistines after their defeat in the valley of Rephaim "from Geba until thou come to Gezer," showing that this was on the frontier of the Philistine territory; and in 1 Chronicles 20:4 it states, "There arose war at Gezer with the Philistines; then Sibbecai the Hushathite slew Sippai, of the sons of the giant; and they were subdued." In the corresponding account in 2 Samuel 21:18 the scene of this event is said to be Gob, which is probably a copyist's error-g-w-b for g-z-r. According to Josephus (Ant., VIII, vi, 1), at the commencement of Solomon's reign Gezer was in the hands of the Philistines, which may explain 1 Kings 9:16, where it is stated that a certain Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married, captured and burnt Gezer and gave the site to his daughter. Solomon rebuilt it (9:17). There are no further references to Gezer during the later Jewish monarchy, but there are several during the Maccabean period. Judas pursued Gorgias to "Gazara and into the plains of Idumaea and Azotis and Jamnia" (1 Maccabees 4:15); Bacchides, after his defeat by Jonathan, "fortified also the city of Bethsura, and Gazara, and the tower, and put forces in them and provision of victuals" (1 Maccabees 9:52 the King James Version); a little later Simon "camped against Gazara and besieged it round about; he made also an engine of war, and set it by, the city and battered a certain tower, and took it" (1 Maccabees 13:43 the King James Version), after which he purified it (1 Maccabees 13:47, 48). From Josephus (Ant., XIII, viii, 2) we gather that Antiochus had taken Gezer from the Jews.

The governor, Alkios, who made the bilingual inscriptions, may come in about this time or a little later; the rock inscriptions, of which half a dozen are now known, give no information regarding their date.

In the period of the Crusades this site, under the name "Mount Gisart," was a crusading fort and gave its name to a family. Here King Baldwin IV gained a victory over Saladin in 1177, and in 1191 the latter monarch camped here while conducting some fruitless negotiations with King Richard Coeur de Lion. In 1495 a skirmish occurred here between the governor of Jerusalem and certain turbulent Bedouin. The history of Gezer, as known, is thus one of battles and sieges extending over at least 3,000 years; from the archaeological remains we may infer that its history was similar for at least 1,000 years earlier.

3. History of the Excavations:

In 1904 the Palestine Exploration Fund of England obtained a "permit" for the excavation of Tell Jezer. The whole site was the private property of certain Europeans, whose agent, living much of the time on the Tell itself, was himself deeply interested in the excavations, so that unusually favorable conditions obtained for the work. Mr. (now Professor) R. A. Stewart Macalister, M.A., was sent out, and for 3 years (1904-7) he instituted an examination of the hidden remains in the mound, after a manner, till then, unexampled in Palestine exploration. His ambition was to turn over every cubic foot of soil down to the original rock, so that nothing of importance could be overlooked. As at the expiration of the original "permit" much remained unexplored, application was made to the authorities for a second one, and, at the end of 1907, Mr. Macalister embarked on a further 2 years of digging. Altogether he worked for the greater part of 5 years, except for necessary interruptions of the work due to unfavorable weather. Some two-thirds of the total accumulated debris on the mound was ransacked, and besides this, many hundreds of tombs, caves and other antiquarian remains in the neighborhood were thoroughly explored.

4. Chief Results of the Explorations:

It was found that the original bare rock surface of the hill was crowned with buried remains, in some parts 20 and 30 ft. deep, made up of the debris of all the cities which had stood on the site during three or four thousand years; on the part excavated there were no remains so late as the commencement of the Christian era, the Gezer of that time, and the crusading fort, being built on a neighboring site. The earliest inhabitants were Troglodytes living in the many caves which riddled the hill surface; they were apparently a non-Sem race, and there was some evidence that they at least knew of cremation. These, or a race soon after-the earliest Semites-enclosed the hilltop with high earth rampart faced with rough stones-the earliest "walls" going back at least before 3000 B.C. At an early period-probably about 3000 B.C.-a race with a relatively high civilization fortified the whole hilltop with a powerful and remarkably well-built wall, 14 ft. thick, with narrow towers of short projection at intervals of 90 ft. At a point on the South side of this was unearthed a very remarkable, massive, brick gateway (all the other walls and buildings are of stone), with towers on each side still standing to the height of 16 ft., but evidently once much higher. This gate showed a strong Egyptian influence at work long before the first historic reference (XVIIIth Dynasty), for both gateway and wall to which it belonged had been ruined at an early date, the former indeed, after its destruction, was overlaid by the buildings of a city, which from its datable objects-scarabs, etc.-must have belonged to the time of Amenhotep III, i.e. as early as 1500 B.C.

The later wall, built, we may conclude, soon after the ruin of the former, and therefore about 1500 B.C., was also a powerful construction and must have existed considerably over a thousand years, down, indeed, till 100 B.C. at least, when Gezer disappears from history as a fortitled site. These walls enclosed a larger area than either of the previous ones; they show signs of destruction and repairs, and Mr. Macalister is of the opinion that some of the extensive repairs-in one place a gap of 150 ft.-and the 28 inserted towers are the work of Solomon (1 Kings 9:17). This wall must have existed in use through all we know of Gezer from Bible sources. When, from the ruined remains, we reconstruct in imagination these mighty ramparts, we need not wonder that the' Hebrews, fresh from long wanderings in the wilderness, found it no easy task to capture cities so fortified as was this (Numbers 13:28 Deuteronomy 1:28).

The foundations of a powerful building, which were found inserted in a gap in the southern walls, turned out conclusively to be the palace of Simon Maccabeus-who captured the city (1 Maccabees 13:43)-a graffito being found upon one of its stones running thus:

which seems to mean, "Pamphras, may he bring down (fire) on the palace of Simon."

Within the city walls the foundations of some seven or eight cities of various successive periods were found, superimposed one above the other. The city's best days appear to have been shortly before the time of Joshua; the next, perhaps, at the time of the Judges. With the period to which we should probably assign the arrival of the Hebrews, there is a great increase in the population, the hitherto inviolate environs of the "temple" being encroached upon by private dwellings: an interesting commentary on Joshua 16:10.

The great "High Place" which was uncovered is one of unique interest, and its discovery has thrown a flood of light upon the religion of the early Canaanites, that religion-"the worship of Baal and Ashteroth"-which was the great rival of the purer religion of Israel. This [Ba`al] temple, or bamoth, consisted of a row of 8 matstsebhoth or rude stone pillars ranging in height from 5 ft. 5 inches to 10 ft. 9 inches (see HIGH PLACE; PILLAR), together with a curious trough which may have been a socket for the 'Asherah (see ASHERAH), or some kind of altar. The area around these pillars had a kind of rough floor of consolidated earth under which were found a number of large jars containing infant bones, considered to be the remains of infant sacrifice. In close proximity to this "temple" was a double cave, the construction of which strongly suggested that it had been arranged for the giving of oracles. This high place had been used for very many centuries; the matstsebhoth were not all of one period but had gradually been increased from one to seven, and an eighth of a more definitely sculptured form-as a simulacrum priapi-had been added some time later. In the accumulated rubbish around these pillars were found enormous numbers of small stone phallic images, together with pottery plaques of Astarte, made with rude exaggeration of the sexual organs.


Another monument of great interest-and high antiquity-was the great rock-cut tunnel. It is about 23 ft. high, and 13 ft. wide, and descends by 80 steps, 94 1/2 ft. through the solid rock, to a cave in which there is a spring. It is very similar to the great tunnel known as "Warren's tunnel and shaft" which was clearly constructed by the early Jebusites to reach from within the city's walls to the fountain of Gihon (see SILOAM; ZION). This Gezer tunnel must date at least to 2000 B.C.; it is evident from the nature of the accumulated debris which blocked its mouth that it was actually abandoned about 1400 B.C. Its antiquity is confirmed by the fact that it was evidently excavated with flint knives.

At a much later period in history, in that of the Maccabees, the water supply of the city, in time of siege, at any rate, was largely dependent on an enormous open cistern which Mr. Macalister cleared of earth and found capable of containing 2,000,000 gallons of water. Among the smaller "finds" which throw light upon the Bible history may be mentioned two much broken, cuneiform tablets, both referring to land contracts, which, from the names of the eponyms, can be dated to 651 and 649 B.C. respectively. They therefore belong to the time of the last, and one of the greatest, of the Assyrian monarchs, Ahurbanipal, the "noble Osnappar" of Ezra 4:10, and they show that he was not only a great conqueror, but that in Palestine he had an organized government and that legal civil business was transacted in the language of Assyria.

The illumination of Old Testament history which the excavations of Gezer have afforded can here be only hinted at, but references to it will occur in many of the articles in other parts of this Encyclopedia.


In Bible Side-Lights from the Mound of Gezer Professor R. A. S. Macalister has described in a poplar form with illustrations some of his most remarkable discoveries; while in the Memoirs of the Excavations at Gezer (1912), published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, Professor Macalister deals with the subject exhaustively.

E. W. G. Masterman

Strong's Hebrew
1507. Gezer -- "portion," a Levitical city on the border of ...
... 1506, 1507. Gezer. 1508 . "portion," a Levitical city on the border of Ephraim.
Transliteration: Gezer Phonetic Spelling: (gheh'-zer) Short Definition: Gezer ...
/hebrew/1507.htm - 6k

1506. gezer -- part
... 1505, 1506. gezer. 1507 . part. Transliteration: gezer Phonetic Spelling:
(gheh'-zer) Short Definition: asunder. ... 1505, 1506. gezer. 1507 . Strong's Numbers
/hebrew/1506.htm - 6k

1511. Gizri -- Gezrites
... Gezrites (in the m patrial from Gezer; a Gezerite (collectively) or ... see HEBREW Gezer.
see HEBREW Griziym. 1510, 1511. Gizri. 1512 . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/1511.htm - 6k

1508. gizrah -- a cutting, separation
... Word Origin fem. of gezer Definition a cutting, separation NASB Word Usage polishing
(1), separate area (6), separate areas (1). ... see HEBREW gezer. 1507, 1508. ...
/hebrew/1508.htm - 6k


Results of Transgression
... He rebuilt Gezer, near Joppa, lying along the road between Egypt and Syria;
Beth-horon, to the westward of Jerusalem, commanding the passes of the highway ...
/.../white/the story of prophets and kings/chapter 4 results of transgression.htm

The Training of a Statesman.
... Plundered is Canaan with every evil; Askalon is carried into captivity, Gezer is
taken; Yenoam is annihilated, Israel is desolated, her seed is not, Palestine ...
/.../kent/the making of a nation/study viii the training of.htm

Pride of Prosperity
... Furthermore, Pharaoh rendered signal service to Israel by taking Gezer, slaying
"the Canaanites that dwelt in the city," and giving it "for a present unto his ...
/.../white/the story of prophets and kings/chapter 3 pride of prosperity.htm

... Chapters 71-80 Chapter 75 Gadara. There was a double Gadara. One at the shore of
the Mediterranean sea: that was first called Gezer, 1 Kings 9:15. ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 75 gadara.htm

How Solomon Fortified the City of Jerusalem, and Built Great ...
... them higher, with great towers upon them; he also built cities which might be counted
among the strongest, Hazor and Megiddo, and the third Gezer, which had ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 6 how solomon fortified.htm

A Shepherd Boy who was Called to Lead a Nation
... have gone out before you to overthrow the army of the Philistines." David did as
Jehovah commanded him and drove the Philistines from Gibeon as far as Gezer. ...
// childrens bible/a shepherd boy who was.htm

The Old Testament and Archeology
... southern Palestine have been excavated, the most important being Tel-el-Hesy, the
probable site of ancient Lachish, and the site of the important city of Gezer ...
/.../the christian view of the old testament/chapter iv the old testament.htm

... A typical illustration of the Deuteronomic attitude to the history is to be found
in the statement that Joshua obliterated the people of Gezer, x.33, which ...
// to the old testament/joshua.htm

Whether any Gifts Should be Assigned as Dowry to the Blessed?
... bride is called "a donation in view of marriage." In this sense dowry is taken
(3 Kings 9:16) where it is stated that "Pharoa, the king of Egypt, took Gezer . ...
/.../ theologica/whether any gifts should be.htm

... [Behold the deed] which Malchiel and Suardatum have done against the country of
the king my lord, hiring (?) the forces of the cities of Gezer, of Gath, and of ...
/.../sayce/early israel and the surrounding nations/appendices.htm

Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

dividing, sentence

Smith's Bible Dictionary

(a precipice), an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, Hiram or Elam, coming to the assistance of Lachish, was killed with all his people by Joshua. (Joshua 10:33; 12:12) It formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of Ephraim, between the lower Beth-horon and the Mediterranean, (Joshua 16:3) the western limit of the tribe (1 Chronicles 7:28) It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites, (Joshua 21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67) but the original inhabitants were not dispossessed, (Judges 1:29) and even down to the reign of Solomon the Canaanites were still dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel (1 Kings 9:16) It was burned by Pharaoh in Solomon's time, (1 Kings 9:15-17) and given to Solomon's Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him.

ATS Bible Dictionary

A royal city of the Canaanites, Joshua 10:33 12:12; between Bethhoron and the Mediterranean, Joshua 16:3; afterwards on the western border of Ephraim, and assigned to the Levites, Joshua 16:3 21:21. The Canaanites long retained a foothold in it, Joshua 16:10 Jude 1:29; but were dispossessed by a king of Egypt, and the place given to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1 Kings 9:16, who fortified it.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
A precipice, an ancient royal Canaanitish city (Joshua 10:33; 12:12). It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites (21:21; 1 Chronicles 6:67). It stood between the lower Beth-horon and the sea (Joshua 16:3; 1 Kings 9:17). It was the last point to which David pursued the Philistines (2 Samuel 5:25; 1 Chronicles 14:16) after the battle of Baal-perazim. The Canaanites retained possession of it till the time of Solomon, when the king of Egypt took it and gave it to Solomon as a part of the dowry of the Egyptian princess whom he married (1 Kings 9:15-17). It is identified with Tell el-Jezer, about 10 miles south-west of Beth-horon. It is mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
Gezer (14 Occurrences)
...GEZER. ge'-zer (gezer): A city of great military importance in ancient times,
the site of which has recently been thoroughly explored. ...
/g/gezer.htm - 27k

Millstone (9 Occurrences)
... Bliss and Macalister in their excavations at Gezer and other places have found
specimens of what is called the saddle-quern or mill, which consists of two ...
/m/millstone.htm - 15k

Expel (29 Occurrences)
... Joshua 16:10 And they did not expel the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the
Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites to this day, and serve under tribute. ...
/e/expel.htm - 15k

Dispossessed (42 Occurrences)
... Joshua 16:10 and they have not dispossessed the Canaanite who is dwelling in Gezer,
and the Canaanite dwelleth in the midst of Ephraim unto this day, and is to ...
/d/dispossessed.htm - 19k

Mill (9 Occurrences)
... Bliss and Macalister in their excavations at Gezer and other places have found
specimens of what is called the saddle-quern or mill, which consists of two ...
/m/mill.htm - 18k

Fortified (79 Occurrences)
... Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell ec-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh,
Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Professor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund ...
/f/fortified.htm - 63k

Fort (8 Occurrences)
... Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell ec-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh,
Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Professor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund ...
/f/fort.htm - 41k

Fortress (75 Occurrences)
... Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell ec-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh,
Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Professor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund ...
/f/fortress.htm - 60k

Fortification (5 Occurrences)
... Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell ec-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh,
Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Professor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund ...
/f/fortification.htm - 40k

Philistines (224 Occurrences)
... 1. Race and Origin: The Philistines were an uncircumcised people inhabiting the
shore plain between Gezer and Gaza in Southwestern Palestine (see PHILISTIA). ...
/p/philistines.htm - 75k

Bible Concordance
Gezer (14 Occurrences)

Joshua 10:33 Then Horam king of Gezer came up to help Lachish; and Joshua struck him and his people, until he had left him none remaining.

Joshua 12:12 the king of Eglon, one; the king of Gezer, one;

Joshua 16:3 and it went down westward to the border of the Japhletites, to the border of Beth Horon the lower, even to Gezer; and ended at the sea.

Joshua 16:10 They didn't drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwell in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and have become servants to do forced labor.

Joshua 21:21 They gave them Shechem with its suburbs in the hill country of Ephraim, the city of refuge for the manslayer, and Gezer with its suburbs,

Judges 1:29 Ephraim didn't drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer; but the Canaanites lived in Gezer among them.

2 Samuel 5:25 David did so, as Yahweh commanded him, and struck the Philistines from Geba until you come to Gezer.

1 Kings 9:15 This is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised, to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer.

1 Kings 9:16 Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites who lived in the city, and given it for a portion to his daughter, Solomon's wife.

1 Kings 9:17 Solomon built Gezer, and Beth Horon the lower,

1 Chronicles 6:67 They gave to them the cities of refuge, Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim with its suburbs; Gezer also with its suburbs,

1 Chronicles 7:28 Their possessions and habitations were Bethel and its towns, and eastward Naaran, and westward Gezer, with its towns; Shechem also and its towns, to Azzah and its towns;

1 Chronicles 14:16 David did as God commanded him: and they struck the army of the Philistines from Gibeon even to Gezer.

1 Chronicles 20:4 It happened after this, that there arose war at Gezer with the Philistines: then Sibbecai the Hushathite killed Sippai, of the sons of the giant; and they were subdued.



Gezer: Allotted to the Half-Tribe of Ephraim

Gezer: Assigned to Levites

Gezer: Battle With Philistines At

Gezer: Canaanites not all Expelled From, But Made to Pay Tribute (Taxes)

Gezer: Fortified by Solomon

Gezer: King of, Defeats Joshua

Gezer: Struck by David

Related Terms

Millstone (9 Occurrences)

Expel (29 Occurrences)

Dispossessed (42 Occurrences)

Mill (9 Occurrences)

Fortified (79 Occurrences)

Fort (8 Occurrences)

Fortress (75 Occurrences)

Fortification (5 Occurrences)

Philistines (224 Occurrences)

Canaan (102 Occurrences)

Oil (281 Occurrences)

E'phraim (146 Occurrences)

Place (9195 Occurrences)

Drove (89 Occurrences)


Nether (19 Occurrences)

Gob (3 Occurrences)

Beth-hor'on (12 Occurrences)

Horon (13 Occurrences)

Zion (169 Occurrences)

Dwelleth (142 Occurrences)

Aqueduct (4 Occurrences)

Horam (1 Occurrence)

Cistern (21 Occurrences)

Tree (245 Occurrences)

Westward (35 Occurrences)

Overcame (84 Occurrences)

Genealogy (29 Occurrences)

Cities (427 Occurrences)


Well (2882 Occurrences)

Canaanites (63 Occurrences)

Alphabet (2 Occurrences)

Pool (25 Occurrences)

Rephaim (32 Occurrences)

Olive (61 Occurrences)

Canaanite (74 Occurrences)

Suburbs (75 Occurrences)

Attacking (73 Occurrences)

Forced (84 Occurrences)

Lower (72 Occurrences)

Pasture (120 Occurrences)

Altar (343 Occurrences)

Tribute (67 Occurrences)

Ephraim (168 Occurrences)

Drive (132 Occurrences)

Crafts (2 Occurrences)

Refuge (111 Occurrences)

Solomon's (56 Occurrences)

Images (158 Occurrences)

Hiel (1 Occurrence)

Samson (37 Occurrences)

Shechem (61 Occurrences)

Solomon (277 Occurrences)

Continued (148 Occurrences)

Labor (181 Occurrences)

West (110 Occurrences)

Gibeon (39 Occurrences)

Keilah (16 Occurrences)

Naaran (1 Occurrence)

Na'aran (1 Occurrence)

Naaram (1 Occurrence)

Outgoings (21 Occurrences)

Japh'letites (1 Occurrence)

Jokmeam (2 Occurrences)

Joktheel (2 Occurrences)

Japhia (5 Occurrences)

Japhleti (1 Occurrence)

Japhletites (1 Occurrence)

Beth (115 Occurrences)

Levitical (19 Occurrences)

Living-places (17 Occurrences)

Lampstand (38 Occurrences)

Laborers (19 Occurrences)

Lamp (45 Occurrences)

Levied (5 Occurrences)

Levy (19 Occurrences)

Gizrites (1 Occurrence)

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