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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

gad'-a-ra (Gadara):

1. Country of the Gadarenes:

This city is not named in Scripture, but the territory belonging to it is spoken of as chora ton Gadarenon, "country of the Gadarenes" (Matthew 8:28). In the parallel passages (Mark 5:1 Luke 8:26, 37) we read: chora ton Gerasenon "country of the Gerasenes." There is no good reason, however, to question the accuracy of the text in either case. The city of Gadara is represented today by the ruins of Umm Qeis on the heights south of el-Chummeh-the hot springs in the Yarmuk valley-about 6 miles Southeast of the Sea of Galilee. It maybe taken as certain that the jurisdiction of Gadara, as the chief city in these regions, extended over the country East of the Sea, including the lands of the subordinate town, GERASA (which see). The figure of a ship frequently appears on its coins: conclusive. proof that its territory reached the sea. The place might therefore be called with propriety, either "land of the Gerasenes," with reference to the local center, or "land of the Gadarenes," with reference to the superior city.

(NOTE.-The Textus Receptus of the New Testament reading. ton Gergesenon, "of the Gergesenes," must be rejected (Westcott-Hort, II. App., 11).)

2. History:

The name Gadara appears to be Semitic It is still heard in Jedur, which attaches to the ancient rock tombs, with sarcophagi, to the East of the present ruins. They are closed by carved stone doors, and are used as storehouses for grain, and also as dwellings by the inhabitants. The place is not mentioned till later times. It was taken by Antiochus the Great when in 218 B.C. he first invaded Palestine (Polyb. v.71). Alexander Janneus invested the place, and reduced it after a ten months' siege (Ant., XIII, iii, 3; BJ, I, iv, 2). Pompey is said to have restored it, 63 B.C. (Ant., XIV, iv, 4; BJ, I, vii, 7); from which it would appear to have declined in Jewish hands. He gave it a free constitution. From this date the era of the city was reckoned. It was the seat of one of the councils instituted by Gabinius for the government of the Jews (Ant., XIV, v, 4; BJ, I, viii, 5). It was given by Augustus to Herod the Great in 30 B.C. (Ant., XV, vii, 3; BJ, I, xx, 3). The emperor would not listen to the accusations of the inhabitants against Herod for oppressive conduct (Ant., XV, x, 2). After Herod's death it was joined to the province of Syria, 4 B.C. (Ant., XVII, xi, 4; BJ, II, vi, 3). At the beginning of the Jewish revolt the country around Gadara was laid waste (BJ, II, xviii, 1). The Gadarenes captured some of the boldest of the Jews, of whom several were put to death, and others imprisoned (ibid., 5). A party in the city surrendered it to Vespasian, who placed a garrison there (BJ, IV, vii, 3). It continued to be a great and important city, and was long the seat of a bishop (Reland, Palestine, 776). With the conquest of the Moslems it passed under eclipse, and is now an utter ruin.

3. Identification and Description:

Umm Cheis answers the description given of Gadara by ancient writers. It was a strong fortress (Ant., XIII, iii, 3), near the Hieromax-i.e. Yarmuk (Pliny N H, xvi)-East of Tiberias and Scythopolis, on the top of a hill, 3 Roman miles from hot springs and baths called Amatha, on the bank of the Hieromax (Onomasticon, under the word). The narrow ridge on which the ruins lie runs out toward the Jordan from the uplands of Gilead, with the deep gorge of Wady Yarmuk-Hieromax-on the North, and Wady el `Arab on the South. The hot springs, as noted above, are in the bottom of the valley to the North. The ridge sinks gradually to the East, and falls steeply on the other three sides, so that the position was one of great strength. The ancient walls may be traced in almost their entire circuit of 2 miles. One of the great Roman roads ran eastward to Der`ah; and an aqueduct has been traced to the pool of el Khab, about 20 miles to the North of Der`ah. The ruins include those of two theaters, a basilica, a temple, and many important buildings, telling of a once great and splendid city. A paved street, with double colonnade, ran from East to West. The ruts worn in the pavement by the chariot wheels are still to be seen.

That there was a second Gadara seems certain, and it may be intended in some of the passages referred to above. It is probably represented by the modern Jedur, not far from es-Salt (Buhl, Buhl, Geographic des alten Palastina, 255; Guthe). Josephus gives Pella as the northern boundary of Peraea (BJ, III, iii, 3). This would exclude Gadara on the Hieromax. The southern city, therefore, should be understood as "the capital of Peraea" in BJ, IV; vii, 3.

Gadara was a member of the DECAPOLIS (which see).

W. Ewing

1046. Gadarenos -- of Gadara, Gadarene
... of Gadara, Gadarene. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: Gadarenos Phonetic
Spelling: (gad-ar-ay-nos') Short Definition: Gadarene, belonging to Gadara ...
// - 6k

... Chapters 71-80 Chapter 75 Gadara. There was a double Gadara. ... But the other Gadara,
which we seek, was in Perea, and was the metropolis of Perea. ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 75 gadara.htm

The Demoniac of Gadara
... St. Mark CHAPTER 5:1-20 THE DEMONIAC OF GADARA. "And they came to the other
side of the sea, into the country of the Gerasenes. And ...
/.../chadwick/the gospel of st mark/chapter 5 1-20 the demoniac of.htm

The Men of Gadara
... of St. Mark CHAPTER 5:14-20 THE MEN OF GADARA. "And they that fed them fled,
and told it in the city, and in the country. And they ...
/.../chadwick/the gospel of st mark/chapter 5 14-20 the men of.htm

How John Tyrannized Over the Rest; and what Mischiefs the Zealots ...
... Mischiefs The Zealots Did At Masada. How Also Vespasian Took Gadara; And What
Actions Were Performed By Placidus. 1. By this time John ...
/.../chapter 7 how john tyrannized.htm

That Vespasian, after He had Taken Gadara Made Preparation for the ...
... CHAPTER 9. That Vespasian, After He Had Taken Gadara Made Preparation For The Siege
Of Jerusalem; But That, Upon His Hearing Of The Death Of Nero, He Changed ...
/.../chapter 9 that vespasian after.htm

Chammath. Ammaus. The Warm Baths of Tiberias.
... It is not seldom called 'Chammath of Gadara'; not only because it was very near
the Gadarene country,"for the channel of Jordan only was between;"but ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 74 chammath ammaus the.htm

The Gadarene Demoniac. --Christ's Treatment of Him after the Cure. ...
... Christ landed on the eastern shore, near the town of Gadara. ... p. 145. [322] These
are still to be found among the ruins of Om-Keis, probably the ancient Gadara. ...
/.../section 132 the gadarene demoniac.htm

The Gospel of St. Mark
5:21-43 WITH JAIRUS. CHAPTER 5:21-43 cont. WITH JAIRUS cont. ...
// gospel of st mark/

Stilling the Storms.
... When Jesus was very tired from teaching the people and healing the sick He used
to cross the lake and go up among the rocks of Gadara, a wild region where ...
/.../lathbury/childs story of the bible/chapter xxi stilling the storms.htm

... The same is true of the demoniacs at Gadara, and it is easily understood that only
an eyewitness should remember the obscure comrade of a remarkable and ...
/.../chadwick/the gospel of st mark/chapter 10 46-52 bartimaeus.htm

Smith's Bible Dictionary

a strong city situated near the river Hieromax, six miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, over against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 16 Roman miles distant from each of those places. Josephus calls it the capital of Peraea. The ruins of this city, now called Um Keis , are about two miles in circumference. The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance around the city. Godet says there is still a population of 200 souls in these tombs. Gadara was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews, all its inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the surrounding villages, was reduced to ashes.

ATS Bible Dictionary

Now Um-keis, a fortified chief city of Decapolis, of considerable importance in the time of Christ, and having many Greek inhabitants. It lay south of the river Hieromax, seven miles level summit of a steep limestone hill. A few ruins are found on the top of the hill; many excavated tombs on its sides, still partly occupied as residences; and warm springs at its base. The country of the Gadarenes extended to the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee; and in the part of its bordering on the lake occurred the miracle recorded in Matthew 8:28 9:1 Mr 5:1-20 Luke 8:26-39. A legion of demons were cast out of two men, and entered a herd of swine, causing their destruction. See GERGESENES.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
The capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It stood on the summit of a mountain about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee. Mark (5:1) and Luke (8:26-39) describe the miracle of the healing of the demoniac (Matthew 8:28-34] says two demoniacs) as having been wrought "in the country of the Gadarenes," thus describing the scene generally. The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself, for between the lake and this town there is the deep, almost impassable ravine of the Hieromax (Jarmuk). It is identified with the modern village of Um-Keis, which is surrounded by very extensive ruins, all bearing testimony to the splendour of ancient Gadara.

"The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance round the city, chiefly on the north-east declivity; but many beautifully sculptured sarcophagi are scattered over the surrounding heights. They are excavated in the limestone rock, and consist of chambers of various dimensions, some more than 20 feet square, with recesses in the sides for bodies...The present inhabitants of Um-Keis are all troglodytes, `dwelling in tombs,' like the poor maniacs of old, and occasionally they are almost as dangerous to unprotected travellers."

... The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself, for between the lake and
this town there is the deep, almost impassable ravine of the Hieromax (Jarmuk ...
/g/gadara.htm - 12k

Decapolis (3 Occurrences)
... cities were Scythopolis, ie, "city of the Scythians", (ancient Bethshean, the only
one of the ten cities on the west of Jordan), Hippos, Gadara, Pella (to ...
/d/decapolis.htm - 10k

Gadarenes (4 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary The inhabitants of Gadara, in Revised Version
"Gerasenes" (Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26, 37). In Matthew 8:28 they ...
/g/gadarenes.htm - 8k

... The natural boundary on the North would be the great gorge of the Yarmuk. Gadara,
Josephus tells us (BJ, IV, vii, 3, 6), was capital of the Peraea. ...
/p/peraea.htm - 10k

Jairus (6 Occurrences)
... According to Mark and Luke the arrival of Jairus in Capernaum fell immediately after
the return of Jesus from Gadara, but according to Matthew the sequence of ...
/j/jairus.htm - 10k

... army, crowded together in a narrow and deep valley, was broken in pieces by the
multitude of camels (BJ, I, iv, 4). This incident is located at Gadara in Ant ...
/g/gaulonitis.htm - 9k

Golan (4 Occurrences)
... army, crowded together in a narrow and deep valley, was broken in pieces by the
multitude of camels (BJ, I, iv, 4). This incident is located at Gadara in Ant ...
/g/golan.htm - 11k

Tob (5 Occurrences)
... Perhaps the most likely identification is that supported by GA Smith (HGHL,
587), with eT-Taiyibeh, 10 miles South of Umm Qeis (Gadara). ...
/t/tob.htm - 10k

Beth-arbel (1 Occurrence)
... Irbid (or Irbil) in Galilee, or with Irbid, which corresponds to Arbela of the Eusebius,
Onomasticon, East of the Jordan, about 12 miles Southeast of Gadara. ...
/b/beth-arbel.htm - 8k

Betharbel (1 Occurrence)
... Irbid (or Irbil) in Galilee, or with Irbid, which corresponds to Arbela of the Eusebius,
Onomasticon, East of the Jordan, about 12 miles Southeast of Gadara. ...
/b/betharbel.htm - 8k



Related Terms

Decapolis (3 Occurrences)

Gadarenes (4 Occurrences)


Jairus (6 Occurrences)


Golan (4 Occurrences)

Tob (5 Occurrences)

Beth-arbel (1 Occurrence)

Betharbel (1 Occurrence)

Bathing (9 Occurrences)

Ramothgilead (19 Occurrences)

Ramoth-gilead (20 Occurrences)

Jordan (188 Occurrences)

Bath (13 Occurrences)

Gilead (130 Occurrences)

Galilee (73 Occurrences)

Land (19790 Occurrences)

Valley (187 Occurrences)

Matthew (5 Occurrences)

Gergesenes (1 Occurrence)

Gad (78 Occurrences)

Jesus (10891 Occurrences)

Christ (573 Occurrences)

Gospel (108 Occurrences)

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