Food
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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
FOOD

food:

I. VEGETABLE FOODS

1. Primitive Habits

2. Cereals

3. Leguminous Plants

4. Food of Trees

II. ANIMAL FOOD

LITERATURE

In a previous article (see BREAD) it has been shown that in the Bible "bread" usually stands for food in general and how this came to be so. In a complementary article on MEALS the methods of preparing and serving food will be dealt with. This article is devoted specifically to the foodstuffs of the Orient, more especially to articles of food in use among the Hebrews in Bible times. These are divisible into two main classes.

I. Vegetable Foods.

1. Primitive Habits:

Orientals in general are vegetarians, rather than flesh eaters. There is some reason to believe that primitive man was a vegetarian (see Genesis 2:16; Genesis 3:2, 6). It would seem, indeed, from a comparison of Genesis 1:29 with 9:3 that Divine permission to eat the flesh of animals was first given to Noah after the Deluge, and then only on condition of drawing off the blood in a prescribed way (compare the kosher (kasher) meat of the Jews of today).

2. Cereals:

The chief place among the foodstuffs of Orientals must be accorded to the cereals, included in the American Standard Revised Version under the generic term "grain," in the King James Version and the English Revised Version "corn." The two most important of these in the nearer East are wheat (chiTTah) and barley (se`orim). The most primitive way of using the wheat as food was to pluck the (Leviticus 23:14 2 Kings 4:42), remove the husks by rubbing in the hands (Deuteronomy 23:25 Matthew 12:1), and eat the grains raw. A common practice in all lands and periods, observed by the fellaheen of Syria today, has been to parch or roast the ears and eat the grain not ground. This is the parched corn (the American Standard Revised Version "grain") so often mentioned in the Old Testament, which with bread and vinegar (sour wine) constituted the meal of the reapers to which Boaz invited Ruth (Ruth 2:14).

Later it became customary to grind the wheat into flour (kemach), and, by bolting it with a fine sieve, to obtain the "fine flour" (coleth) of our English Versions of the Bible, which, of course, was then made into "bread" (which see), either without leaven (matstsah) or with (lechem chamets Leviticus 7:13).

Meal, both of wheat and of barley, was prepared in very early times by means of the primitive rubbing-stones, which excavations at Lachish, Gezer and elsewhere show survived the introduction of the hand-mill (see MILL; Compare PEFS, 1902, 326). Barley (se`orim) has always furnished the principal food of the poorer classes, and, like wheat, has been made into bread (Judges 7:13 John 6:9, 13). Less frequently millet (Ezekiel 4:9) and spelt (kuccemeth; see FITCHES) were so used. (For details of baking, bread-making, etc., see BREAD. III, 1, 2, 3.)

3. Leguminous Plants:

Vegetable foods of the pulse family (leguminosae) are represented in the Old Testament chiefly by lentils and beans. The pulse of Daniel 1:12 (zero`im) denotes edible "herbs" in general (Revised Version margin, compare Isaiah 61:11, "things that are sown"). The lentils (`adhashim) were and are considered very toothsome and nutritious. It was of "red lentils" that Jacob brewed his fateful pottage (Genesis 25:29, 34), a stew, probably, in which the lentils were flavored with onions and other ingredients, as we find it done in Syria today. Lentils, beans, cereals, etc., were sometimes ground and mixed and made into bread (Ezekiel 4:9). I found them at Gaza roasted also, and eaten with oil and salt, like parched corn.

The children of Israel, when in the wilderness, are said to have looked back wistfully on the "cucumbers. melons. leeks. onions, and the garlic" of Egypt (Numbers 11:5). All these things we find later were grown in Palestine. In addition, at least four varieties of the bean, the chickpea, various species of chickory and endive, the bitter herbs of the Passover ritual (Exodus 12:8), mustard (Matthew 13:31) and many other things available for food, are mentioned in the Mishna, our richest source of information on this subject. Cucumbers (qishshu'im) were then, as now, much used. The oriental variety is much less fibrous and more succulent. and digestible than ours, and supplies the thirsty traveler often with a fine substitute for water where water is scarce or bad. The poor in such cities as Cairo, Beirut and Damascus live largely on bread and cucumbers or melons. The cucumbers are eaten raw, with or without salt, between meals, but also often stuffed and cooked and eaten at meal time. Onions (betsalim), garlic (shummim) and leeks (chatsir) are still much used in Palestine as in Egypt. They are usually eaten raw with bread, though also used for flavoring in cooking, and, like cucumbers, pickled and eaten as a relish with meat (ZDPV, IX, 14). Men in utter extremity sometimes "plucked saltwort" (malluah) and ate the leaves, either raw or boiled, and made "the roots of the broom" their food (Job 30:4).

4. Food of Trees:

In Leviticus 19:23 it is implied that, when Israel came into the land to possess it, they should "plant all manner of trees for food." They doubtless found such trees in the goodly land in abundance, but in the natural course of things needed to plant more. Many olive trees remain fruitful to extreme old age, as for example those shown the tourist in the garden of Gethsemane, but many more require replanting. Then the olive after planting requires ten or fifteen years to fruit, and trees of a quicker growth, like the fig, are planted beside them and depended on for fruit in the meantime. It is significant that Jotham in his parable makes the olive the first choice of the trees to be their king (Judges 9:9), and the olive tree to respond, "Should I leave my fatness, which God and man honor in me, and go to wave to and fro over the trees?" (American Revised Version margin). The berries of the olive (zayith) were doubtless eaten, then as now, though nowhere in Scripture is it expressly so stated. The chief use of the berries, now as ever, is in furnishing "oil" (which see), but they are eaten in the fresh state, as also after being soaked in brine, by rich and poor alike, and are shipped in great quantities. Olive trees are still more or less abundant in Palestine, especially around Bethlehem and Hebron, on the borders of the rich plains of Esdraelon, Phoenicia, Sharon and Philistia, in the vale of Shechem, the plain of Moreh, and in the trans-Jordanic regions of Gilead and Bashan. They are esteemed as among the best possessions of the towns, and the culture of them is being revived around Jerusalem, in the Jordan valley and elsewhere throughout the land. They are beautiful to behold in all stages of their growth, but especially in spring. Then they bear an amazing wealth of blossoms, which in the breeze fall in showers like snowflakes, a fact that gives point to Job's words, "He shall cast off his flower as the olive-tree" (Job 15:33). The mode of gathering the fruit is still about what it was in ancient times (compare Exodus 27:20).

Next in rank to the olive, according to Jotham's order, though first as an article of food, is the fig (in the Old Testament te'enah, in the New Testament suke), whose "sweetness" is praised in the parable (Judges 9:11). It is the principal shade and fruit tree of Palestine, growing in all parts, in many spontaneously, and is the emblem of peace and prosperity (Deuteronomy 8:8 Judges 9:10 1 Kings 4:25 Micah 4:4 Zechariah 3:10; APC 1Macc 14:12). The best fig and olive orchards are carefully plowed, first in the spring when the buds are swelling, sometimes again when the second crop is sprouting, and again after the first rains in the autumn. The "first-ripe fig" (bikkurah, Isaiah 28:4 Jeremiah 24:2), i.e. the early fig which grows on last year's wood, was and is esteemed as a great delicacy, and is often eaten while it is young and green. The late fig (te'enim) is the kind dried in the sun and put up in quantities for use out of season. Among the Greeks and the Romans, as well as among the Hebrews, dried figs were most extensively used. When pressed in a mold they formed the "cakes of figs" (debhelah) mentioned in the Old Testament (1 Samuel 25:18 1 Chronicles 12:40), doubtless about such as are found today in Syria and Smyrna, put up for home use and for shipment. It was such a fig-cake that was presented as a poultice (the King James Version "plaster") for Hezekiah's boil (Isaiah 38:21; compare 2 Kings 20:7). As the fruit-buds of the fig appear before the leaves, a tree full of leaves and without fruit would be counted "barren" (Mark 11:12; compare Isaiah 28:4 Jeremiah 24:2 Hosea 9:10 Nahum 3:12 Matthew 21:19 Luke 13:7).

Grapes ('anabhim), often called "the fruit of the vine" (Matthew 26:29), have always been a much-prized article of food in the Orient. They are closely associated in the Bible with the fig (compare "every man under his vine and under his fig-tree," 1 Kings 4:25). Like the olive, the fig, and the date-palm, grapes are indigenous to Syria, the soil and climate being most favorable to their growth and perfection. Southern Palestine especially yields a rich abundance of choice grapes, somewhat as in patriarchal times (Genesis 49:11, 12). J. T. Haddad, a native Syrian, for many years in the employment of the Turkish government, tells of a variety in the famous valley of Eshcol near Hebron, a bunch from which has been known to weigh twenty-eight pounds (compare Numbers 13:23). Of the grapevine there is nothing wasted; the young leaves are used as a green vegetable, and the old are fed to sheep and goats. The branches cut off in pruning, as well as the dead trunk, are used to make charcoal, or for firewood. The failure of such a fruit was naturally regarded as a judgment from Yahweh (Psalm 105:33 Jeremiah 5:17 Hosea 2:12 Joel 1:7). Grapes, like figs, were both enjoyed in their natural state, and by exposure to the sun dried into raisins (tsimmuqim), the "dried grapes" of Numbers 6:3. In this form they were especially well suited to the use of travelers and soldiers (1 Samuel 25:18 1 Chronicles 12:40). The meaning of the word rendered "raisin-cake," the American Standard Revised Version "a cake of raisins" (2 Samuel 6:19 and elsewhere), is uncertain. In Bible times the bulk of the grape product of the land went to the making of wine (which see). Some doubt if the Hebrews knew grape-syrup, but the fact that the Aramaic dibs, corresponding to Hebrew debhash, is used to denote both the natural and artificial honey (grape-syrup), seems to indicate that they knew the latter (compare Genesis 43:11 Ezekiel 27:17; and see HONEY).

Less prominent was the fruit of the mulberry figtree (or sycomore) (shiqmah), of the date-palm (tamar), the dates of which, according to the Mishna, were both eaten as they came from the tree, and dried in clusters and pressed into cakes for transport; the pomegranate (tappuach), the "apple" of the King James Version (see APPLE), or quinch, according to others; the husks (Luke 15:16), i.e. the pods of the carob tree keration), are treated elsewhere. Certain nuts were favorite articles of food-pistachio nuts (boTnim), almonds (sheqedhim) and walnuts ('eghoz); and certain spices and vegetables were much used for seasoning: cummin (kammon), anise, dill (the King James Version) qetsach), mint (heduosmon) and mustard (sinapi), which see. Salt (melach), of course, played an important part, then as now, in the cooking and in the life of the Orientals. To "eat the salt" of a person was synonymous with eating his bread (Ezra 4:14), and a "covenant of salt" was held inviolable (Numbers 18:19 2 Chronicles 13:5).

II. Animal Food.

Anciently, even more than now in the East, flesh food was much less used than among western peoples. In the first place, in Israel and among other Semitic peoples, it was confined by law to the use of such animals and birds as were regarded as "clean" (see CLEAN; UNCLEANNESS), or speaking according to the categories of Leviticus 11:2, 3 Deuteronomy 14:4-20, domestic animals and game (see Driver on Deuteronomy 14:4-20). Then the poverty of the peasantry from time immemorial has tended to limit the use of meat to special occasions, such as family festivals (chaggim), the entertainment of an honored guest (Genesis 18:7 2 Samuel 12:4), and the sacrificial meal at the local sanctuary.

The goat (`ez, etc.), especially the "kid of the goats" (Leviticus 4:23, 18 the King James Version), was more prized for food by the ancient Hebrews than by modern Orientals, by whom goats are kept chiefly for their milk-most of which they supply (compare Proverbs 27:27). For this reason they are still among the most valued possessions of rich and poor (compare Genesis 30:33; Genesis 32:14 with 1 Samuel 25:2). A kid, as less valuable than a lamb, was naturally the readier victim when meat was required (compare Luke 15:29).

The sheep of Palestine, as of Egypt, are mainly of the fat-tailed species (Ovis aries), the tail of which was forbidden as ordinary food and had to be offered with certain other portions of the fat (Exodus 29:22 Leviticus 3:9). To kill a lamb in honor of a gue st is one of the highest acts of Bedouin hospitality. As a rule only the lambs are killed for meat, and they only in honor of some guest or festive occasion (compare 1 Samuel 25:18 1 Kings 1:19). Likewise the "calves of the herd" supplied the daintiest food of the kind, though the flesh of the neat cattle, male and female, was eaten. The "fatted calf" of Luke 15:23 will be recalled, as also the "fatlings" and the "stalled" (stall-fed) ox of the Old Testament (Proverbs 15:17). Asharp contrast suggestive of the growth of luxury in Israel is seen by a comparison of 2 Samuel 17:28 with 1 Kings 4:22. The food furnished David and his hardy followers at Mahanaim was "wheat, and barley, and meal, and parched grain, and beans, and lentils, and parched pulse, and honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of the herd," while the daily provision for Solomon's table was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, besides harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl." Nehemiah's daily portion is given as "one ox and six choice sheep" (Nehemiah 5:18).

Milk of large and small animals was a staple article of food (Deuteronomy 32:14 Proverbs 27:27). It was usually kept in skins, as among the Syrian peasants it is today (Judges 4:19). We find a generic term often used (chem'ah) which covers also cream, clabber and cheese (Proverbs 30:33). The proper designation of cheese is gebhinah (Job 10:10), but chalabh also is used both for ordinary milk and for a cheese made directly from sweet milk (compare 1 Samuel 17:18, charitse hechalabh, and our "cottage cheese").

SeeMILK.

Honey (debhash, nopheth ha-tsuphim), so often mentioned with milk, is ordinary bees' honey (see HONEY). The expression "honey" in the combination debhash wechalabh, for which Palestine was praised, most likely means debhash temarim, i.e. "date-juice." It was much prized and relished (Psalm 19:10 Proverbs 16:24), and seems to have been a favorite food for children (Isaiah 7:15).

Of game seven species are mentioned (Deuteronomy 14:5). The gazelle and the hart were the typical animals of the chase, much prized for their flesh (Deuteronomy 12:15), and doubtless supplied the venison of Esau's "savory meat" (Genesis 25:28; Genesis 27:4).

Of fish as food little is said in the Old Testament (see Numbers 11:5 Jeremiah 16:16 Ezekiel 47:10 Ecclesiastes 9:12). No particular species is named, although thirty-six species are said to be found in the waters of the Jordan valley alone. But we may be sure that the fish which the Hebrews enjoyed in Egypt "for nought" (Numbers 11:5) had their successors in Canaan (Kennedy). Trade in cured fish was carried on by Tyrian merchants with Jerusalem in Nehemiah's day (Nehemiah 13:16), and there must have been a fish market at or near the fish gate (Nehemiah 3:3). The Sea of Galilee in later times was the center of a great fish industry, as is made clear by the Gospels and by Josephus In the market of Tiberias today fresh fish are sold in great quantities, and a thriving trade in salt fish is carried on. The "small fishes" of our Lord's two great miracles of feeding were doubtless of this kind, as at all times they have been a favorite form of provision for a journey in hot countries.

As to the exact price of food in ancient times little is known. From 2 Kings 7:1, 16 we learn that one ce'ah of fine flour, and two of barley, sold for a shekel (compare Matthew 10:29). For birds allowed as food see Deuteronomy 14:11 and articles on CLEAN; UNCLEANNESS.

Pigeons and turtle doves find a place in the ritual of various sacrifices, and so are to be reckoned as "clean" for ordinary uses as well. The species of domestic fowl found there today seem to have been introduced during the Persian period (compare 2 Esdras 1:30; Matthew 23:37; Matthew 26:34, etc.). It is thought that the fatted fowl of Solomon's table (1 Kings 4:23) were geese (see Mish). Fatted goose is a favorite food with Jews today, as it was with the ancient Egyptians.

Of game birds used for food (see Nehemiah 5:18) the partridge and the quail are prominent, and the humble sparrow comes in for his share of mention (Matthew 10:29 Luke 12:6). Then, as now, the eggs of domestic fowls and of all "clean" birds were favorite articles of food (Deuteronomy 22:6 Isaiah 10:14 Luke 11:12).

Edible insects (Leviticus 11:22 f) are usually classed with animal foods. In general they are of the locust family (see LOCUST). They formed part of the food of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:4, etc.), were regarded by the Assyrians as delicacies, and are a favorite food of the Arabs today. They are prepared and served in various ways, the one most common being to remove the head, legs and wings, to drop it in meal, and then fry it in oil or butter. It then tastes a little like fried frogs' legs. In the diet of the Baptist, locusts were associated with wild honey (see HONEY).

As to condiments (see separate articles on SALT; CORIANDER, etc.) it needs only to be said here that the caperberry (Ecclesiastes 12:5 margin) was eaten before meals as an appetizer and, strictly speaking, was not a condiment. Mustard was valued for the leaves, not for the seed (Matthew 13:31). Pepper, though not mentioned in Scripture, is mentioned margin the Mishna as among the condiments. Before it came into use, spicy seeds like cummin, the coriander, etc., played a more important role than since.

The abhorrence of the Hebrews for all food prepared or handled by the heathen (see ABOMINATION) is to be attributed primarily to the intimate association in early times between flesh food and sacrifices to the gods. This finds conspicuous illustration in the case of Daniel (Daniel 1:8), Judas Maccabeus (2 Maccabees 5:27), Josephus (Vita, III), and their compatriots (see also Acts 15:20, 29 1 Corinthians 8:1-10; 1 Corinthians 10:19, 28). As to sources of food supply and traffic in food stuffs, for primitive usages see Genesis 18:7; Genesis 27:9 1 Kings 21:2. As to articles and customs of commerce adopted when men became dwellers in cities, see Jeremiah 37:21, where bakers were numerous enough in Jerusalem to give their name to a street or bazaar, where doubtless, as today, they baked and sold bread to the public (compare Mishna,passim). Extensive trade in "victuals" in Nehemiah's day is attested by Nehemiah 13:15, and by specific mention of the "fish gate" (3:3) and the "sheep gate" (3:1), so named evidently because of their nearby markets. In John's Gospel (John 4:8; John 13:29) we have incidental evidence that the disciples were accustomed to buy food as they journeyed through the land. In Jerusalem, cheese was clearly to be bought in the cheesemakers' valley (Tyropoeon), oil of the oil merchants (Matthew 25:9), and so on; and Corinth, we may be sure, was not the only city of Paul's day that had a provision market ("shambles," 1 Corinthians 10:25 the Revised Version (British and American)).

LITERATURE.

Mishna B.M. i. 1, 2 and passim; Josephus, Vita and BJ; Robinson's Researches, II, 416, etc.; and Biblical Dictionaries, articles on "Food," etc.

George B. Eager

Greek
1305. diatrophe -- food, nourishment
... food, nourishment. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: diatrophe Phonetic
Spelling: (dee-at-rof-ay') Short Definition: nourishment, food Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1305.htm - 7k

1035. brosis -- eating, food
... eating, food. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: brosis Phonetic Spelling:
(bro'-sis) Short Definition: eating, food, a meal, rust Definition: (a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1035.htm - 6k

5160. trophe -- nourishment, food
... nourishment, food. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: trophe Phonetic
Spelling: (trof-ay') Short Definition: food, nourishment Definition: food ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5160.htm - 6k

1033. broma -- food
... food. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: broma Phonetic Spelling:
(bro'-mah) Short Definition: food of any kind Definition: food of any kind. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1033.htm - 6k

4620. sitometrion -- a measured portion of food
... a measured portion of food. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: sitometrion
Phonetic Spelling: (sit-om'-et-ron) Short Definition: a measured portion ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4620.htm - 6k

776. asitia -- abstinence from food
... abstinence from food. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: asitia Phonetic
Spelling: (as-ee-tee'-ah) Short Definition: abstinence, a fast Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/776.htm - 6k

1422b. duskolos -- hard to satisfy with food, hence generally hard ...
... 1422a, 1422b. duskolos. 1423 . hard to satisfy with food, hence generally hard
to please, difficult. Transliteration: duskolos Short Definition: hard. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1422b.htm - 5k

741. artuo -- to make ready, to season (food)
... to make ready, to season (food). Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: artuo Phonetic
Spelling: (ar-too'-o) Short Definition: I season, flavor Definition: prop ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/741.htm - 6k

5528. chortos -- a feeding place, food, grass
... a feeding place, food, grass. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: chortos
Phonetic Spelling: (khor'-tos) Short Definition: grass, hay Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5528.htm - 6k

5527. chortasma -- fodder
... fodder. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: chortasma Phonetic Spelling:
(khor'-tas-mah) Short Definition: food, sustenance Definition: food ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5527.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
400. okel -- food
... 399, 400. okel. 401 . food. Transliteration: okel Phonetic Spelling:
(o'-kel) Short Definition: food. Word Origin from akal Definition ...
/hebrew/400.htm - 6k

402. oklah -- food, eating
... 401, 402. oklah. 403 . food, eating. Transliteration: oklah Phonetic
Spelling: (ok-law') Short Definition: food. Word Origin fem. ...
/hebrew/402.htm - 6k

3978. maakal -- food
... 3977, 3978. maakal. 3979 . food. Transliteration: maakal Phonetic Spelling:
(mah-ak-awl') Short Definition: food. Word Origin from ...
/hebrew/3978.htm - 6k

3899. lechem -- bread, food
... lechem. 3900 . bread, food. Transliteration: lechem Phonetic Spelling:
(lekh'-em) Short Definition: bread. ... showbread, eat, food, fruit, loaf, meat, victuals. ...
/hebrew/3899.htm - 6k

4202. mazon -- food, sustenance
... 4201, 4202. mazon. 4203 . food, sustenance. Transliteration: mazon Phonetic
Spelling: (maw-zone') Short Definition: food. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/4202.htm - 6k

1267. baruth -- food
... food. Transliteration: baruth Phonetic Spelling: (baw-rooth,) Short Definition:
food. Word Origin from barah Definition food NASB Word Usage food (1). meat. ...
/hebrew/1267.htm - 6k

1279. biryah -- food
... food. Transliteration: biryah Phonetic Spelling: (beer-yaw') Short Definition: food.
Word Origin from barah Definition food NASB Word Usage food (3). meat. ...
/hebrew/1279.htm - 6k

2964. tereph -- prey, food, a leaf
... 2963, 2964. tereph. 2965 . prey, food, a leaf. Transliteration: tereph
Phonetic Spelling: (teh'-ref) Short Definition: prey. Word ...
/hebrew/2964.htm - 6k

4203. mazon -- food
... 4202, 4203. mazon. 4204 . food. Transliteration: mazon Phonetic Spelling:
(maw-zone') Short Definition: food. Word Origin (Aramaic ...
/hebrew/4203.htm - 6k

6720. tsedah -- provision, food
... 6719b, 6720. tsedah. 6721 . provision, food. Transliteration: tsedah
Phonetic Spelling: (tsay-daw') Short Definition: provisions. ...
/hebrew/6720.htm - 6k

Library

Food for the Lambs; or, Helps for Young Christians
Food for the Lambs; or, Helps for Young Christians. <. Food for the
Lambs; or, Helps for Young Christians Charles Ebert Orr. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/orr/food for the lambs or helps for young christians/

Food for the Lambs.
Food for the Lambs; or, Helps for Young Christians. <. ... FOOD FOR
THE LAMBS. Of course, it is very important to know what ...
/.../orr/food for the lambs or helps for young christians/food for the lambs.htm

The Food of the World
... THE FOOD OF THE WORLD. 'He gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples to
the multitude.20. ... To some lips you can commend the food for all the world. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture b/the food of the world.htm

For what Food is unto the Conservation of the Man...
... Section 18. For what food is unto the conservation of the man´┐Ż 18. For
what food is unto the conservation of the man, this sexual ...
/.../augustine/on the good of marriage/section 18 for what food.htm

Whether the Semen is Produced from Surplus Food?
... OF THE PROPAGATION OF MAN AS TO THE BODY (TWO ARTICLES) Whether the semen
is produced from surplus food? Objection 1: It would seem ...
/.../aquinas/summa theologica/whether the semen is produced.htm

"Who Provideth for the Raven his Food?"
... FOR THE CHILDREN "WHO PROVIDETH FOR THE RAVEN HIS FOOD?". tr., Emma Frances Bevan,
1899. ... All is ready"food and gladness, free to each and all. ...
/.../hymns of ter steegen and others second series/who provideth for the raven.htm

Jesus, Food of Angels
... No. 54 Jesus, Food of Angels. THE BLESSED SACRAMENT Jesus, Food of Angels. Communion
Hymn Partendo dal Mondo Translated by Father E. Vaughan, CSSR Ch. ...
/.../various/the st gregory hymnal and catholic choir book/no 54 jesus food of.htm

Incomparable Food; Or, the Flesh and Blood of Christ.
... Hymns. Book 3. Prepared for the Lord's Supper. Hymn 3:17. Incomparable food;
or, The flesh and blood of Christ. 1[We sing th' amazing ...
/.../watts/hymns and spiritual songs/hymn 3 17 incomparable food or.htm

Whether Some Part of the Food is Changed into True Human Nature?
... OF THE PROPAGATION OF MAN AS TO THE BODY (TWO ARTICLES) Whether some part
of the food is changed into true human nature? Objection ...
//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether some part of the.htm

Whether Food or Drink Taken Beforehand Hinders the Receiving of ...
... OF THE USE OR RECEIVING OF THIS SACRAMENT IN GENERAL (TWELVE ARTICLES) Whether food
or drink taken beforehand hinders the receiving of this sacrament? ...
/.../christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether food or drink taken.htm

Smith's Bible Dictionary
Food

The diet of eastern nations has been in all ages light and simple. Vegetable food was more used than animal. The Hebrews used a great variety of articles, (John 21:5) to give a relish to bread. Milk and its preparations hold a conspicuous place in eastern diet, as affording substantial nourishment; generally int he form of the modern leben , i.e. sour milk. Authorized Version "butter;" (Genesis 18:8; Judges 5:25; 2 Samuel 17:29) Fruit was another source of subsistence: figs stood first in point of importance; they were generally dried and pressed into cakes. Grapes were generally eaten in a dried state as raisins. Of vegetables we have most frequent notice of lentils, beans, leeks, onions and garlic, which were and still are of a superior quality in Egypt. (Numbers 11:5) Honey is extensively used, as is also olive oil. The Orientals have been at all times sparing in the use of animal food; not only does the extensive head of the climate render it both unwholesome to eat much meat and expensive from the necessity of immediately consuming a whole animal, but beyond this the ritual regulations of the Mosaic law in ancient, as of the Koran in modern, times have tended to the same result. The prohibition expressed against consuming the blood of any animal, (Genesis 9:4) was more fully developed in the Levitical law, and enforced by the penalty of death. (Leviticus 3:17; 7:26; 19:26; 12:16) Certain portions of the fat of sacrifices were also forbidden, (Leviticus 3:9,10) as being set apart for the altar, (Leviticus 3:16; 7:25) In addition to the above, Christians were forbidden to eat the flesh of animals portions of which had been offered to idols. All beasts and birds classed as unclean, (Leviticus 11:1) ff.; Deuteronomy 14:4 ff., were also prohibited. Under these restrictions the Hebrews were permitted the free use of animal food: generally speaking they only availed themselves of it in the exercise of hospitality or at festivals of a religious, public or private character. It was only in royal households that there was a daily consumption of meat. The animals killed for meat were --calves, lambs, oxen not above three years of age, harts, roebucks and fallow deer; birds of various kinds; fish, with the exception of such as were without scales and fins. Locusts, of which certain species only were esteemed clean, were occasionally eaten, (Matthew 3:4) but were regarded as poor fare.

ATS Bible Dictionary
Food

In ancient the food of a people was more entirely the product of their own country than in our day. Palestine was favored with an abundance of animal food, grain, and vegetables. But throughout the East, vegetable food is more used than animal. Bread was the principal food. Grain of various kinds, beans, lentils, onions, grapes, together with olive oil, honey, and the milk of goats and cows were the ordinary fare. The wandering Arabs live much upon a coarse black bread. A very common dish in Syria is rice, with shreds of meat, vegetables, olive oil, etc., intermixed. A similar dish, made with beans, lentils, and various kinds of pulse, was in frequent use at an earlier age, Genesis 25:29-34 2 Kings 4:38-1.

Fish was a common article of food, when accessible, and was very much used in Egypt. This country was also famous for cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions, and garlics, Numbers 11:5. Such is the food of the Egyptians still. See EATING.

Animal food was always used on festive occasions; and the hospitable patriarchs lost little time in preparing for their guests a smoking dish from their flocks of sheep and goats, their herds of cattle, or their dove cotes, Genesis 18:7 Luke 15:23. The rich had animal food more frequently, and their cattle were stalled and fattened for the table, 1 Samuel 16:20 Isaiah 1:11 11:6 Malachi 4:2. Among the poor, locusts were a common means of sustenance, being dried in the sun, or roasted over the fire on iron plates.

Water was the earliest and common drink. Wine of an intoxicating quality was early known, Genesis 9:20 14:18 40:1. Date wine and similar beverages were common; and the common people used a kind of sour wine, called vinegar in Ruth 2:14 Matthew 27:48.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world for food to man (Genesis 1:29), with the exception mentioned (2:17). The use of animal food was probably not unknown to the antediluvians. There is, however, a distinct law on the subject given to Noah after the Deluge (Genesis 9:2-5). Various articles of food used in the patriarchal age are mentioned in Genesis 18:6-8; 25:34; 27:3, 4; 43:11. Regarding the food of the Israelites in Egypt, see Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5. In the wilderness their ordinary food was miraculously supplied in the manna. They had also quails (Exodus 16:11-13; Numbers 11:31).

In the law of Moses there are special regulations as to the animals to be used for food (Leviticus 11; Deuteronomy 14:3-21). The Jews were also forbidden to use as food anything that had been consecrated to idols (Exodus 34:15), or animals that had died of disease or had been torn by wild beasts (Exodus 22:31; Leviticus 22:8). (See also for other restrictions Exodus 23:19; 29:13-22; Leviticus 3:4-9; 9:18, 19; 22:8; Deuteronomy 14:21.) But beyond these restrictions they had a large grant from God (Deuteronomy 14:26; 32:13, 14).

Food was prepared for use in various ways. The cereals were sometimes eaten without any preparation (Leviticus 23:14; Deuteronomy 23:25; 2 Kings 4:42). Vegetables were cooked by boiling (Genesis 25:30, 34; 2 Kings 4:38, 39), and thus also other articles of food were prepared for use (Genesis 27:4; Proverbs 23:3; Ezek. 24:10; Luke 24:42; John 21:9). Food was also prepared by roasting (Exodus 12:8; Leviticus 2:14). (see COOK.)

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) What is fed upon; that which goes to support life by being received within, and assimilated by, the organism of an animal or a plant; nutriment; aliment; especially, what is eaten by animals for nourishment.

2. (n.) Anything that instructs the intellect, excites the feelings, or molds habits of character; that which nourishes.

3. (v. t.) To supply with food.

Thesaurus
Food (2953 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable
world for food to man (Genesis 1:29), with the exception mentioned (2:17). ...
/f/food.htm - 36k

Food-bags (1 Occurrence)
Food-bags. Food, Food-bags. Food-place . Multi-Version Concordance
Food-bags (1 Occurrence). Joshua 9:4 Acting with deceit, got ...
/f/food-bags.htm - 6k

Food-store (1 Occurrence)
Food-store. Food's, Food-store. Fool . Multi-Version Concordance Food-store
(1 Occurrence). Job 39:9 Will the ox of the mountains be your servant? ...
/f/food-store.htm - 6k

Food-place (1 Occurrence)
Food-place. Food-bags, Food-place. Foods . Multi-Version Concordance
Food-place (1 Occurrence). Proverbs 14:4 Where ...
/f/food-place.htm - 6k

Food's (1 Occurrence)
... Multi-Version Concordance Food's (1 Occurrence). Romans 14:20 Don't overthrow
God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean ...
/f/food's.htm - 6k

Cattle-food (1 Occurrence)
Cattle-food. Cattle, Cattle-food. Cattle-house . Multi-Version
Concordance Cattle-food (1 Occurrence). Genesis 24:25 ...
/c/cattle-food.htm - 6k

Cook (17 Occurrences)
... 3. (n.) One whose occupation is to prepare food for the table; one who dresses or
cooks meat or vegetables for eating. ... 7. (vi) To prepare food for the table. ...
/c/cook.htm - 13k

Soup (10 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) A liquid food of many kinds, usually made by boiling meat and vegetables,
or either of them, in water, -- commonly seasoned or flavored; strong broth. ...
/s/soup.htm - 9k

Stomach (40 Occurrences)
... 1. (n.) An enlargement, or series of enlargements, in the anterior part of the
alimentary canal, in which food is digested; any cavity in which digestion takes ...
/s/stomach.htm - 19k

Appetite (22 Occurrences)
... 2. (n.) Desire for, or relish of, food or drink; hunger. 3. (n.) Any strong desire;
an eagerness or longing. ... They are as loathsome food to me. (See RSV). ...
/a/appetite.htm - 15k

Bible Concordance
Food (2953 Occurrences)

Food occurs 2953 times in 12 translations.

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Subtopics

Commissary for Armies, Cattle Driven With

Food

Food Portions

Food: Articles of a Hymn Sung Afterward

Food: Articles of Bread

Food: Articles of Butter

Food: Articles of Cheese

Food: Articles of Dried Fruit

Food: Articles of Fish

Food: Articles of Fruit

Food: Articles of Herbs

Food: Articles of Honey

Food: Articles of Meat

Food: Articles of Men and Women did not Partake Together

Food: Articles of Milk

Food: Articles of Oil

Food: Articles of Parched (Roasted) Corn (Grain)

Food: Articles of Prepared by Females

Food: Articles of Thanks Given Before Receiving

Food: Articles of Vinegar

Food: Articles of Wine

Food: from God

Food: Things Prohibited As Food

Monopoly of Food

Nutrition

Twinkies

Related Terms

Food-bags (1 Occurrence)

Food-store (1 Occurrence)

Food-place (1 Occurrence)

Food's (1 Occurrence)

Cattle-food (1 Occurrence)

Cook (17 Occurrences)

Soup (10 Occurrences)

Stomach (40 Occurrences)

Appetite (22 Occurrences)

Savoury (7 Occurrences)

Savory (7 Occurrences)

Supplies (23 Occurrences)

Bel (3 Occurrences)

Approval (75 Occurrences)

Cooked (35 Occurrences)

Buy (71 Occurrences)

Vine-gardens (41 Occurrences)

Corn (107 Occurrences)

Attackers (41 Occurrences)

Bait (3 Occurrences)

Browse (2 Occurrences)

Countryside (19 Occurrences)

Surrounding (78 Occurrences)

Sustenance (11 Occurrences)

She-lion (8 Occurrences)

Seating (10 Occurrences)

Supply (40 Occurrences)

Cakes (65 Occurrences)

Perishing (24 Occurrences)

Animal (163 Occurrences)

Allowance (11 Occurrences)

Cooking (14 Occurrences)

Abstinence (2 Occurrences)

Carcasses (30 Occurrences)

Bits (54 Occurrences)

Yields (21 Occurrences)

Special (89 Occurrences)

Venison (10 Occurrences)

Partake (19 Occurrences)

Parched (37 Occurrences)

Painful (18 Occurrences)

Pains (59 Occurrences)

Beast (243 Occurrences)

Bags (16 Occurrences)

Bestow (27 Occurrences)

Barley (35 Occurrences)

Craving (19 Occurrences)

Cows (33 Occurrences)

Controlled (20 Occurrences)

Collected (55 Occurrences)

Attire (11 Occurrences)

Adjured (11 Occurrences)

Scurvy (3 Occurrences)

Snake's (3 Occurrences)

Stamping (11 Occurrences)

Solid (13 Occurrences)

Sack (15 Occurrences)

Surfeit (1 Occurrence)

Soil (59 Occurrences)

Sacks (12 Occurrences)

She-lions (2 Occurrences)

Swan (2 Occurrences)

Store (134 Occurrences)

Snake (43 Occurrences)

Keepers (78 Occurrences)

Stores (53 Occurrences)

Pan (26 Occurrences)

Stopping (22 Occurrences)

Ages (114 Occurrences)

Acting (102 Occurrences)

Supplied (22 Occurrences)

Honey (62 Occurrences)

Sell (58 Occurrences)

Snare (69 Occurrences)

Stored (55 Occurrences)

Agape

Content (30 Occurrences)

Clothed (153 Occurrences)

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