International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kroun: The word crown in the Old Testament is a translation of five different Hebrew words, and in the New Testament of two Greek words. These express the several meanings, and must be examined to ascertain the same.
1. In Hebrew:
The five Hebrew words are as follows:
(1) qodhqodh, from qadhadh;
(2) zer, from zarar;
(3) nezer, or nezer, both from nazar;
(4) aTarah, from `atar;
(5) kether, from kathar.
(1) Qodhqodh means "the crown of the head," and is also rendered in the King James Version "top of the head," "scalp," "pate." It comes from qadhadh, meaning "to shrivel up," "contract," or bend the body or neck through courtesy. Both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version, in Deuteronomy 28:35 and 33:16, translation it "crown" instead of "top" as in the King James Version. Jacob in his prophecy concerning his sons says: "The blessings of thy father. shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that is prince among his brethren" (Genesis 49:26 the American Revised Version, margin). Other references are: Deuteronomy 33:20 2 Samuel 14:25; Job 2:7 Isaiah 3:17 Jeremiah 2:16; Jeremiah 48:45. Translated "scalp" in Psalm 68:21 and "pate" in Psalm 7:16.
(2) Zer means a "chaplet," something spread around the top as a molding about the border, and because of its wreath-like appearance called a crown. "That which presses, binds" (BDB). Comes from zarar, meaning "to diffuse" or "scatter." It is used in Exodus 25:11, 24, 25; Exodus 30:3, 1; 37:2, 11, 12, 26, 27.
(3) Nezer means something "set apart"; i.e. a dedication to the priesthood or the dedication of a Nazarite, hence, a chaplet or fillet as a symbol of such consecration. The word in the King James Version is rendered "crown," "consecration," "separation," "hair." Comes from nazar, meaning "to hold aloof" from impurity, even from drink and food, more definitely, "to set apart" for sacred purposes, i.e. "to separate," "devote," "consecrate." It is found in Exodus 29:6; Exodus 39:30 Leviticus 8:9; Leviticus 21:12 2 Samuel 1:10; 2 Kings 11:12 2 Chronicles 23:11; Psalm 89:39; Psalm 132:18 Proverbs 27:24 Zechariah 9:16.
(4) `ATarah means a crown in the usual sense. Comes from `aTar, meaning "to encircle," as in war for offense or defense; also actually and figuratively "to crown." Rendered sometimes "to compass." It is used in 2 Samuel 12:30 1 Chronicles 20:2 Esther 8:15; Job 19:9; Job 31:36 Psalm 21:3 Proverbs 4:9; Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:24; Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 17:6 Songs 3:11; Isaiah 28:1, 3, 1; Isaiah 62:3 Jeremiah 13:18 Lamentations 5:16 Ezekiel 16:12; Ezekiel 21:26; Ezekiel 23:42 Zechariah 6:11, 14; "crowned," Songs 3:11; "crownest," Psalm 65:11; "crowneth," Psalm 103:4. the Revised Version (British and American) translations "crowned," of Psalm 8:5 "hast crowned." the American Standard Revised Version prefers to translation "crowning," in Isaiah 23:8, "the bestower of crowns."
(5) Kether means a "circlet" or "a diadem." From kathar, meaning "to enclose": as a friend, "to crown"; as an enemy, "to besiege." Variously translated "beset round," "inclose round," "suffer," "compass about." Found in Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17, 6:8; "crowned," in Proverbs 14:18.
2. In Greek:
The two Greek words of the New Testament translated crown are:
(1) stephanos, from stepho, and
(2) diadema, from diadeo, "to bind round."
(1) Stephanos means a chaplet (wreath) made of leaves or leaf-like gold, used for marriage and festive occasions, and expressing public recognition of victory in races, games and war; also figuratively as a reward for efficient Christian life and service (see GAMES). This symbol was more noticeable and intricate than the plain fillet. Only in the Re of John is stephanos called "golden." The "crown of thorns" which Jesus wore was a stephanos (woven wreath) of thorns; the kind is not known (Matthew 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2, 5). Luke makes no mention of it. Whether intended to represent royalty or victory, it was caricature crown. Stephanos is found in 1 Corinthians 9:25 Philippians 4:1 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 2 Timothy 4:8 James 1:12 1 Peter 5:4; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:11; Revelation 6:2; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 14:14; plural in Revelation 4:4, 10; Revelation 9:7; "crowned" in 2 Timothy 2:5 Hebrews 2:9; "crownedst" in Hebrews 2:7.
(2) Diadema is the word for "diadem," from dia (about) and deo (bound), i.e. something bound about the head. In the three places where it occurs (Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12) both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version translation it not "crowns" but "diadems," thus making the proper distinction between stephanos and diadema, such as is not done either in the King James Version or the Septuagint (see Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament). According to Thayer the distinction was not observed in Hellenic Greek "Diadems" are on the dragon (Revelation 12:3), the beast (Revelation 13:1) and on the Rider of the White Horse, "the Faithful and True" (Revelation 19:12). In each case the "diadems" are symbolic of power to rule.
3. Use and Significance:
There are five uses of the crown as seen in the Scripture references studied, namely, decoration, consecration, coronation, exaltation, and remuneration. (1) Decoration.
The zer of Exodus, as far as it was a crown at all, was for ornamentation, its position not seeming to indicate any utility purpose. These wavelet, gold moldings, used in the furnishings of the tabernacle of Moses, were placed about
(a) the table of shewbread (Exodus 25:24; Exodus 37:11);
(b) the ark of the covenant (Exodus 25:11; Exodus 37:2);
(c) the altar of incense (Exodus 30:3, 1; Exodus 37:26, 27). The position of these crowns is a debated question among archaeologists. Their purpose other than decoration is not known. The encircling gold might signify gratitude, parity and enduring worth.
The nezer had a twofold use as the crown of consecration:
(a) It was placed as a frontlet on the miter of the high priest, being tied with a blue lace (Exodus 39:30). The priestly crown was a flat piece of pure gold, bearing the inscription, "Holy to Yahweh," signifying the consecration of the priest as the representative of the people (Exodus 29:6 Leviticus 8:9).
(b) Likewise the Hebrew king (2 Kings 11:12) was set apart by God in wearing on his head a royal nezer, whether of silk or gold we do not know. It was set with jewels (Zechariah 9:16) and was light enough to be taken into battle (2 Samuel 1:10).
The ordinary use of the crown. There were three kinds of kingly crowns used in coronation services:
(a) The nezer or consecration crown, above referred to, was the only one used in crowning Hebrew kings. What seems to be an exception is in the case of Joshua, who represented both priest and king (Zechariah 6:11 the American Revised Version, margin).
(b) The `aTarah, and
(c) the kether were used in crowning foreign monarchs.
No king but a Hebrew could wear a nezer-a "Holy to Yahweh" crown. It is recorded that David presumed to put on his own head the `atarah of King Malcam (2 Samuel 12:30 the American Revised Version, margin). The kether or jeweled turban was the crown of the Persian king and queen (Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17; Esther 6:8).
The `atarah, the stephanos and the diadema were used as crowns of exaltation. Stephanos was the usual crown of exaltation for victors of games, achievement in war and places of honor at feasts. The `atarah was worn at banquets (Songs 3:11 Isaiah 28:1, 3), probably taking the form of a wreath of flowers; also as a crown of honor and victory (Ezekiel 16:12; Ezekiel 21:26; Ezekiel 23:42). Stephanos is the crown of exaltation bestowed upon Christ (Revelation 6:2; Revelation 14:14 Hebrews 2:9). "Exaltation was the logical result of Christ's humiliation" (Vincent). The Apocalyptic woman and locusts receive this emblem of exaltation (Revelation 12:1; Revelation 9:7). The symbolic dragon and beast are elevated, wearing diadema, (Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1). The conquering Christ has "upon his head. many diadems" (Revelation 19:12). Seefurther Tertullian, De corona.
Paul, witnessing the races and games, caught the vision of wreath-crowned victors flush with the reward of earnest endeavor. SeeGAMES. He also saw the persistent, faithful Christian at the end of his hard-won race wearing the symbolic stephanos of rejoicing (1 Thessalonians 2:19 the King James Version), of righteousness (2 Timothy 4:8), of glory (1 Peter 5:4), of life (James 1:12 Revelation 2:10). Paul's fellow Christians were his joy and stephanos (Philippians 4:1), "of which Paul might justly make his boast" (Ellicott). Long before Paul, his Hebrew ancestors saw the `aTarah of glory (Proverbs 4:9) and the `aTarah of a good wife, children's children, riches and a peaceful old age (Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:24; Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 17:6). For Apocrypha references see 1 Maccabees 10:29; 11:35; 13:39.
William Edward Raffety
CROWN OF THORNS
thornz (akdnthinos stephanos): Three of the four evangelists mention the crown of thorns, wherewith the rude Roman soldiers derided the captive Christ (Matthew 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2). All speak of the akanthine (Acanthus) crown, but there is no certainty about the peculiar plant, from the branches of which this crown of cruel mockery was plaited. The rabbinical books. mention no less than twenty-two words in the Bible signifying thorny plants, and the word akantha in the New Testament Greek is a generic and not a specific term. And this word or its adjective is used in the three Gospels, quoted above. It is therefore impossible definitely to determine what was the exact plant or tree, whose thorny branches were selected for this purpose. Tobler (Denkbl., 113, 179) inclines to the Spina Christi, as did Hasselquist. Its botanical name is Zizyphus Spina Christi, It is very common in the East. Its spines are small and sharp, its branches soft, round and pliable, and the leaves look like ivy, with a dark, shiny green color, making them therefore very adaptable to the purpose of the soldiers. Others have designated the Paliurus aculeatus or the Lycium horridum. Both Geikie (Life of Christ, 549) and Farrar (Life of Christ, note 625) point to the Nubk (Zizyphus lotus). Says the latter, "The Nubk struck me, as it has all travelers in Palestine, as being most suitable both for mockery and pain, since its leaves are bright and its thorns singularly strong. But though the Nubk is very common on the shores of Galilee, I saw none of it near Jerusalem." The settlement of the question is manifestly impossible.
Henry E. Dosker