International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(1) (ceneh, Exodus 3:2-4 Deuteronomy 33:16; batos, Mark 12:26 Luke 6:44, "bramble bush"; 20:37; Acts 7:30, 35. All the Old Testament references and the New Testament references, except Luke 6:44, are to the same "bush," namely, Moses' "burning bush"). From its etymology ceneh clearly denotes a "thorny" plant, as does the corresponding batos in the Septuagint and New Testament. In the Latin versions rubus, i.e. "bramble," is used as equivalent. Several varieties of bramble flourish in Palestine, of which the most common is Rubus discolor, but this is not an indigenous plant in Sinai. It is stated by Post that a bush of this plant has been planted by the monks of the Convent of Catherine at Sinai to the rear of the "Chapel of the Burning Bush." In spite of tradition there is but little doubt that Moses' "burning bush" must actually have been a shrub of one of the various thorny acacias, or allied plants, indigenous in the Sinaitic peninsula.
(2) (siach "plant," Genesis 2:5; "shrub," Genesis 21:15; "bush," Job 30:4, 7). In the first reference any kind of plant may be meant, but in the other passages the reference is to the low bushes or scrub, such as are found in the desert.
(3) (nahalolim, the King James Version bushes, the Revised Version (British and American) PASTURE, margin "bushes," Isaiah 7:19). The meaning appears to be rather a place for watering flocks, the corresponding Arabic root nahal, having the meaning "to quench one's thirst," and the corresponding noun of place, manhal, meaning a watering-place in the desert.
E. W. G. Masterman
1. Meaning and Use:
The scene at the burning bush (ceneh, "a bush," Septuagint batos, "blackberry bush") reveals God to the world in one of theophanies with fire, of which there are four mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 3:2; Exodus 13:21; Exodus 19:18; also 2 Thessalonians 1:8 the King James Version, yet to be fulfilled). Many other Divine manifestations were associated with fire. The Burning Bush is mentioned elsewhere in Deuteronomy 33:16 Mark 12:26 Luke 20:37 Acts 7:30, 31.
Exact identification of the particular kind of bush in which God appeared to Moses is impossible. Attempts have been made to identify it with the blackberry bush, as by the Septuagint and also by the monks of the Convent of Catharine on Mount Sinai who grow the blackberry there in token of their tradition. The cassia has also been suggested. Both identifications are failures, the former because the blackberry does not grow in that region unless imported and tended, the latter for philological reasons. Nothing in the language used gives any clue to the species of the bush. The generally accepted view that it was some kind of thorn bush is an assumption with scarcely other ground than that there are so many thorny bushes in that region. This fact does, however, give to the assumption much probability.
The old Jewish commentators have many things to say in explanation of this theophany (compare Jewish Encyclopedia). That one thing which will meet with much response from the Christian heart is that the unconsumed bush with the fire in the midst of it indicated that the Israelites would not be consumed by the afflictions in Egypt. The application of this view to God's people under affliction in all ages is often made by Christian homilists. But this cannot have been the primary meaning of theophany. Of the many theophanies and other Divine manifestations with fire, the specific signification must be learned from a careful study of the circumstances in each case. The fire does not seem to have any one fundamental meaning running through them all. In addition to the references already given, compare Psalm 18:8-12; Psalm 50:3 Ezekiel 1:4 Micah 1:1-4 Habakkuk 3:3-6 Hebrews 12:29.
The exact meaning of the Burning Bush as a method or medium of revelation may appear as follows:
(1) The flame in this bush was not the flame of persecution by God's enemies without, but the flame of God's presence or the presence of His angel within.
(2) The idea of burning and yet not being consumed is brought into the narrative by Moses' wonderment in the moment of his ignorance, before he knew that God was in the bush.
(3) The real significance of the flame in this case seems to be light and glory and preservation where God manifests Himself graciously. This is the universal idea of revealed religion.
The prevailing idea of God in the religions round about was that God dwelt in darkness. The approach to the gods in Egyptian temples was through ever-deepening gloom. It was thought that God was very dangerous and apt to be a destroyer, so that a priest must always intervene. God as a gracious Saviour was the new idea revelation was bringing to the world. This was now first clearly announced, but was not to be fully revealed throughout the time of the long line of priests until the Great High Priest should come and make a "way of approach" that we may come "with boldness unto the throne of grace."
M. G. Kyle