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International Standard Bible EncyclopediaBITTER HERBS
hurbs, or urbs (merorim): Originally in the primitive Passover (Exodus 12:8 Numbers 9:11) these were probably merely salads, the simplest and quickest prepared form of vegetable accompaniment to the roasted lamb. Such salads have always been favorites in the Orient. Cucumbers, lettuce, water-cress, parsley and endive are some of those commonly used. Later on the Passover ritual (as it does today) laid emphasis on the idea of "bitterness" as symbolical of Israel's lot in Egypt. In modern Palestine the Jews use chiefly lettuce and endive for the "bitter herbs" of their Passover. In Lamentations 3:15 the same word is used: "He hath filled me with bitterness merorim, he hath sated me with wormwood." Here the parallelism with "wormwood" suggests some plant more distinctly bitter than the mild salads mentioned above, such, for example, as the colocynth (Citrullus colocynthus) or the violently irritating squirting cucumber (Ecballium elaterium).
bit'-er, bit'-er-nes (mar, or marah = "bitter" (literally or figuratively); also (noun) "bitterness" or (adverb) "bitterly"; "angry," "chafed," "discontented," "heavy" (Genesis 27:34 Exodus 15:23 Numbers 5:18, 19, 23, 24, 27 Esther 4:1; Job 3:20 Psalm 64:3 Proverbs 5:4; Proverbs 27:7 Ecclesiastes 7:26; Isaiah 5:20 Jeremiah 2:19; Jeremiah 4:18 Ezekiel 27:31 Amos 8:10 Habakkuk 1:6); the derivatives marar, meror, and merorah, used with the same significance according to the context, are found in Exodus 1:14; Exodus 12:8 Numbers 9:11 Job 13:26 Isaiah 24:9. The derivati ves meri and meriri occur in Deuteronomy 32:24 Job 23:2 (margin); and tamrur, is found in Jeremiah 6:26; Jeremiah 31:15. In the New Testament the verb pikraino = "to embitter"; the adjective pikros = "bitter," and the noun pikria, "bitterness," supply the same ideas in Colossians 3:19 James 3:11, 14 Revelation 8:11; Revelation 10:9, 10): It will be noted that the word is employed with three principal spheres of application:
Greek4089. pikros -- bitter, sharp
... bitter, sharp. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: pikros Phonetic Spelling:
(pik-ros') Short Definition: bitter, acrid, malignant Definition: bitter ...
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4087. pikraino -- to make bitter
5521. chole -- gall (a bitter herb)
252. halukos -- salt (adjective)
3058. loidoreo -- to abuse, revile
2191. echidna -- a viper
5354. phthoneo -- to envy
1099. glukus -- sweet
894. apsinthos -- wormwood
Strong's Hebrew4846. merorah -- a bitter thing, gall, poison
... merorah or merorah. 4847 . a bitter thing, gall, poison. Transliteration: merorah
or merorah Phonetic Spelling: (mer-o-raw') Short Definition: bitter. ...
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4843. marar -- to be bitter
4815. meriri -- bitter
4844. maror -- bitter thing, bitter herb
4751. mar -- bitter, bitterness
4785. Marah -- a bitter spring in the Sinai peninsula
4755. Mara -- "bitter," symbolic name of Naomi
4472. mamror -- a bitter thing
7219. rosh -- (bitter and poisonous herb) venom
4784. marah -- to be contentious or rebellious
In the Bitter Cold of Winter the Trees Stand Bare of Leaves...
Bitter and Sweet.
Marah; Or, the Bitter Waters Sweetened
Of the Most Bitter Kind of Scrupulosity Touching Confession. ...
The Bitter Waters. Ex 15:23-15
"But if Ye have Bitter Envying," &C.
LM Jane Roscoe. The Bitter Cup.
"But if Ye have Bitter Envying and Strife in Your Hearts, Glory ...
This is He who Took a Bodily Form in the virgin
Easton's Bible DictionaryBitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude (Exodus 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jeremiah 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty nation" (Habakkuk 1:6). The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Hebrews 12:15).
The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Exodus 12:8; Numbers 9:11). The kind of herbs so designated is not known. Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) AA turn of the cable which is round the bitts.
2. (v. t.) Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like that of wormwood or an infusion of hops; as, a bitter medicine; bitter as aloes.
3. (v. t.) Causing pain or smart; piercing; painful; sharp; severe; as, a bitter cold day.
4. (v. t.) Causing, or fitted to cause, pain or distress to the mind; calamitous; poignant.
5. (v. t.) Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty; harsh; stern; virulent; as, bitter reproach.
6. (v. t.) Mournful; sad; distressing; painful; pitiable.
7. (n.) Any substance that is bitter. See Bitters.
ThesaurusBitter-tongued (4 Occurrences)
Bitter-tongued. Bitter-tasting, Bitter-tongued. Bitumen .
Multi-Version Concordance Bitter-tongued (4 Occurrences). ...
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Bitter (203 Occurrences)
Bitter-tasting (2 Occurrences)
Gall (17 Occurrences)
Wormwood (10 Occurrences)
Bitterness (37 Occurrences)
Quarrelsome (9 Occurrences)
Tasting (9 Occurrences)
Mara (1 Occurrence)
Marah (4 Occurrences)
Bible ConcordanceBitter (203 Occurrences)
Matthew 2:18 "A voice was heard in Ramah, wailing and bitter lamentation: It was Rachel bewailing her children, and she refused to be comforted because there were no more."
Matthew 13:57 And they were bitter against him. But Jesus said to them, A prophet is nowhere without honour but in his country and among his family.
Matthew 15:19 For out of the heart come evil thoughts, the taking of life, broken faith between the married, unclean desires of the flesh, taking of property, false witness, bitter words:
Matthew 27:34 They gave him wine mixed with bitter drink: and after tasting it, he took no more.
Matthew 27:39 And those who went by said bitter words to him, shaking their heads and saying,
Matthew 27:48 And straight away one of them went quickly, and took a sponge, and made it full of bitter wine, and put it on a rod and gave him drink.
Mark 6:3 Is not this the woodworker, the son of Mary, and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were bitter against him.
Mark 6:19 And Herodias was bitter against him, desiring to put him to death; but she was not able;
Mark 15:36 And one of them went quickly and, getting a sponge full of bitter wine, put it on a rod, and gave it to him for drink, saying, Let be; let us see if Elijah will come to take him down.
Luke 23:35 and the people stood looking on. The Rulers, too, repeatedly uttered their bitter taunts. "This fellow," they said, "saved others: let him save himself, if he is God's Anointed, the Chosen One."
Luke 23:36 And the men of the army made sport of him, coming to him and giving him bitter wine,
Luke 23:39 And one of the evil-doers on the cross, with bitter feeling, said to him, Are you not the Christ? Get yourself and us out of this.
John 6:41 Now the Jews said bitter things about Jesus because of his words, I am the bread which came down from heaven.
John 7:23 If a child is circumcised even on a Sabbath day, are you bitter against me because I have restored a man to perfect health on a Sabbath day?
John 19:29 Now there was a vessel ready, full of bitter wine, and they put a sponge full of it on a stick and put it to his mouth.
Acts 8:23 For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity."
Acts 12:20 And he was in bitter hostility with the Tyrians and Sidonians; but they came to him with one accord, and, having gained Blastus the king's chamberlain, sought peace, because their country was nourished by the king's.
Acts 14:2 But the disbelieving Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers.
Romans 3:14 "Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness."
Romans 15:3 For Christ did not give pleasure to himself, but, as it is said, The bitter words of those who were angry with you came on me.
Ephesians 4:31 Let all bitterness, wrath, anger, outcry, and slander, be put away from you, with all malice.
Philippians 3:6 In bitter hate I was cruel to the church; I kept all the righteousness of the law to the last detail.
Colossians 3:19 Husbands, love your wives, and don't be bitter against them.
1 Timothy 6:5 Bitter talk of men who, being evil in mind and dead to what is true, take the faith to be a way of making profit.
2 Timothy 3:2 For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, uplifted in pride, given to bitter words, going against the authority of their fathers, never giving praise, having no religion,
2 Timothy 3:3 Without natural love, bitter haters, saying evil of others, violent and uncontrolled, hating all good,
2 Timothy 4:14 Alexander the metal-worker showed bitter hostility towards me: the Lord will requite him according to his doings.
Hebrews 12:15 looking carefully lest there be any man who falls short of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and many be defiled by it;
James 3:11 Does a spring send out from the same opening fresh and bitter water?
James 3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, don't boast and don't lie against the truth.
James 5:1 Come now, you men of wealth, give yourselves to weeping and crying because of the bitter troubles which are coming to you.
2 Peter 2:14 Having eyes full of evil desire, never having enough of sin; turning feeble souls out of the true way; they are children of cursing, whose hearts are well used to bitter envy;
Revelation 8:11 The name of the star is called "Wormwood." One third of the waters became wormwood. Many people died from the waters, because they were made bitter.
Revelation 10:9 I went to the angel, telling him to give me the little book. He said to me, "Take it, and eat it up. It will make your stomach bitter, but in your mouth it will be as sweet as honey."
Revelation 10:10 I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up. It was as sweet as honey in my mouth. When I had eaten it, my stomach was made bitter.
Genesis 21:16 And she went some distance away, about an arrow flight, and seating herself on the earth, she gave way to bitter weeping, saying, Let me not see the death of my child.
Genesis 26:35 And they were a bitterness of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah.
Genesis 27:34 When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with an exceeding great and bitter cry, and said to his father, "Bless me, even me also, my father."
Genesis 31:40 This was my condition, wasted by heat in the day and by the bitter cold at night; and sleep went from my eyes.
Genesis 41:31 And men will have no memory of the good time because of the need which will come after, for it will be very bitter.
Genesis 43:1 Now the land was in bitter need of food.
Genesis 44:13 Then in bitter grief they put the bags on the asses again and went back to the town.
Genesis 49:7 A curse on their passion for it was bitter; and on their wrath for it was cruel. I will let their heritage in Jacob be broken up, driving them from their places in Israel.
Genesis 50:10 And they came to the grain-floor of Atad on the other side of Jordan, and there they gave the last honours to Jacob, with great and bitter sorrow, weeping for their father for seven days.
Exodus 1:14 and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve.
Exodus 12:8 They shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread. They shall eat it with bitter herbs.
Exodus 15:23 When they came to Marah, they couldn't drink from the waters of Marah, for they were bitter. Therefore its name was called Marah.
Numbers 5:15 Then let him take her to the priest, offering for her the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal, without oil or perfume; for it is a meal offering of a bitter spirit, a meal offering keeping wrongdoing in mind.
Numbers 5:18 The priest shall set the woman before Yahweh, and let the hair of the woman's head go loose, and put the meal offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal offering of jealousy. The priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that brings a curse.
Numbers 5:19 The priest shall cause her to swear, and shall tell the woman, "If no man has lain with you, and if you haven't gone aside to uncleanness, being under your husband, be free from this water of bitterness that brings a curse.
Numbers 5:23 "'The priest shall write these curses in a book, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness.
Numbers 5:24 He shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causes the curse; and the water that causes the curse shall enter into her and become bitter.
Numbers 5:26 And he will take some of it in his hand, burning it on the altar as a sign, and then he will give the woman the bitter water.
Numbers 5:27 When he has made her drink the water, then it shall happen, if she is defiled, and has committed a trespass against her husband, that the water that causes the curse will enter into her and become bitter, and her body will swell, and her thigh will fall away: and the woman will be a curse among her people.
Numbers 5:30 Or for a husband who, in a bitter spirit, has doubts in his heart about his wife; let him take her to the priest, who will put in force this law.
Numbers 9:11 In the second month, on the fourteenth day at evening they shall keep it; they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
Numbers 22:3 And in Moab there was great fear of the people, because their numbers were so great: and the feeling of Moab was bitter against the children of Israel.
Deuteronomy 28:53 And your food will be the fruit of your body, the flesh of the sons and daughters which the Lord your God has given you; because of your bitter need and the cruel grip of your haters.
Deuteronomy 28:57 And to her baby newly come to birth, and to the children of her body; for having no other food, she will make a meal of them secretly, because of her bitter need and the cruel grip of your haters on all your towns.
Deuteronomy 29:18 So that there may not be among you any man or woman or family or tribe whose heart is turned away from the Lord our God today, to go after other gods and give them worship; or any root among you whose fruit is poison and bitter sorrow;
Deuteronomy 32:24 They shall be wasted with hunger, and devoured with burning heat and bitter destruction. I will send the teeth of animals on them, With the poison of crawling things of the dust.
Deuteronomy 32:32 For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, of the fields of Gomorrah. Their grapes are grapes of gall, Their clusters are bitter.
Judges 5:23 'Curse Meroz,' said the angel of Yahweh.'Curse bitterly its inhabitants, because they didn't come to help Yahweh, to help Yahweh against the mighty.'
Judges 18:25 And the children of Dan said to him, Say no more, or men of bitter spirit may make an attack on you, causing loss of your life and the lives of your people.
Judges 21:2 And the people came to Beth-el, waiting there till evening before God, and gave themselves up to bitter weeping.
Ruth 1:13 would ye wait on that account till they were grown? Would ye stay on that account from having husbands? No, my daughters, for I am in much more bitterness than you; for the hand of Jehovah is gone out against me.
Ruth 1:20 She said to them, "Don't call me Naomi. Call me Mara; for the Almighty has dealt very bitterly with me.
1 Samuel 1:10 She was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to Yahweh, and wept sore.
1 Samuel 14:52 All through the life of Saul there was bitter war against the Philistines; and whenever Saul saw any strong man or any good fighting man, he kept him near himself.
1 Samuel 22:2 And everyone who was in trouble, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was bitter in soul, came together to him, and he became captain over them: about four hundred men were joined to him.
1 Samuel 30:6 And David was greatly troubled; for the people were talking of stoning him, because their hearts were bitter, every man sorrowing for his sons and his daughters: but David made himself strong in the Lord his God.
2 Samuel 1:11 Then David gave way to bitter grief, and so did all the men who were with him:
2 Samuel 2:26 Then Abner called to Joab, and said, "Shall the sword devour forever? Don't you know that it will be bitterness in the latter end? How long shall it be then, before you bid the people return from following their brothers?"
2 Samuel 17:8 Hushai said moreover: 'Thou knowest thy father and his men, that they are mighty men, and they are embittered in their minds, as a bear robbed of her whelps in the field; and thy father is a man of war, and will not lodge with the people.
2 Samuel 19:2 And the salvation of that day was changed to sorrow for all the people: for it was said to the people, The king is in bitter grief for his son.
1 Kings 2:8 Now you have with you Shimei, the son of Gera the Benjamite of Bahurim, who put a bitter curse on me on the day when I went to Mahanaim; but he came down to see me at Jordan, and I gave him my oath by the Lord, saying, I will not put you to death by the sword.
1 Kings 14:6 Then Ahijah, hearing the sound of her footsteps coming in at the door, said, Come in, O wife of Jeroboam; why do you make yourself seem like another? for I am sent to you with bitter news.
1 Kings 20:43 Then the king of Israel went back to his house, bitter and angry, and came to Samaria.
1 Kings 21:5 But Jezebel, his wife, came to him and said, Why is your spirit so bitter that you have no desire for food?
2 Kings 4:27 And when she came to where the man of God was on the hill, she put her hands round his feet; and Gehazi came near with the purpose of pushing her away; but the man of God said, Let her be, for her soul is bitter in her; and the Lord has kept it secret from me, and has not given me word of it.
2 Kings 14:26 For Yahweh saw the affliction of Israel, that it was very bitter; for there was none shut up nor left at large, neither was there any helper for Israel.
2 Kings 19:22 Against whom have you said evil and bitter things? against whom has your voice been loud and your eyes lifted up? even against the Holy One of Israel.
2 Kings 20:3 "Remember now, Yahweh, I beg you, how I have walked before you in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in your sight." Hezekiah wept bitterly.
2 Chronicles 26:19 Then Uzziah was angry; and he had in his hand a vessel for burning perfume; and while his wrath was bitter against the priests, the mark of the leper's disease came out on his brow, before the eyes of the priests in the house of the Lord by the altar of perfumes.
Esther 4:1 Now when Mordecai found out all that was done, Mordecai tore his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and wailed loudly and a bitterly.
Job 2:12 And lifting up their eyes when they were still far off, it did not seem that the man they saw was Job because of the change in him. And they gave way to bitter weeping, with signs of grief, and put dust on their heads.
Job 3:5 Let darkness and death-shade redeem it, Let a cloud tabernacle upon it, Let them terrify it as the most bitter of days.
Job 3:20 "Why is light given to him who is in misery, life to the bitter in soul,
Job 7:11 "Therefore I will not keep silent. I will speak in the anguish of my spirit. I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.
Job 9:18 He will not allow me to catch my breath, but fills me with bitterness.
Job 10:1 "My soul is weary of my life. I will give free course to my complaint. I will speak in the bitterness of my soul.
Job 13:26 For you write bitter things against me, and make me inherit the iniquities of my youth:
Job 16:10 Their mouths are open wide against me; the blows of his bitter words are falling on my face; all of them come together in a mass against me.
Job 17:2 Truly, those who make sport of me are round about me, and my eyes become dark because of their bitter laughing.
Job 19:2 How long will you make my life bitter, crushing me with words?
Job 20:14 His food becomes bitter in his stomach; the poison of snakes is inside him.
Job 21:25 Another dies in bitterness of soul, and never tastes of good.
Job 23:2 Even to day is my complaint bitter: my stroke is heavier than my groaning.
Job 27:2 "As God lives, who has taken away my right, the Almighty, who has made my soul bitter.
Psalms 4:4 Let there be fear in your hearts, and do no sin; have bitter feelings on your bed, but make no sound. (Selah.)
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